These cards the material covered by the University of Michigan Medical School.
Key words Lecture 3&4:
ligand, receptor, effector, second messenger, target, G-protein, GTPase, receptor kinase, ion-channel
agonist, antagonist, heterotrimeric, adenylyl cyclase, phosphodiesterase, phospholipase C, calmodulin
Study Guide Lectures 3&4:
1. Know the categories of signaling molecules.
2. Know the categories of receptors involved in transmembrane signaling.
3. Know the structural features of intracellular hormone receptors.
4. Understand the mechanism of ligand activation of steroid hormone receptors.
5. Understand the concept of primary and secondary responses induced by intracellular receptors.
6. Know the three classes of cell-surface receptors.
7. Know the activation/inactivation cycle of monomeric G-proteins, including the functions of GEF (GNRP) and GAP.
8. Know the types of intracellular signaling complexes.
9. Know the mechanisms by which cells become desensitized to extracellular signaling molecules.
10. Know the common structural features of G protein-coupled receptors.
11. Know the functions of the extracellular, intracellular, and transmembrane domains of G protein-linked receptors.
12. Know the definition of agonist and antagonist.
13. Know the a) subunit structure of G-proteins, b) the role of guanine nucleotide binding in activation and inactivation, and c) the nature of G-protein interactions with effector enzymes.
14. Know the effectors regulated by Gs, Gi, and Gq.
15. Know the reaction catalyzed adenylate cyclase.
16. Know the cellular targets for cAMP.
17. Know the steps at which signal amplification occurs in G-protein mediated responses.
18. Know the reaction catalyzed by phospholipase C.
19. Know the cellular targets for IP3 and DAG.
20. Understand the mechanism of action of calmodulin.
21. Understand the regulation of nitric oxide synthase.
22. Know the toxin reactivity of Gs and Gi.
23. Understand the mechanisms involved in desensitization and turn-off of G-protein-linked signaling, including the roles of receptor specific kinases, arrestin, and receptor degradation.
24. Understand the significance of inherited mutations in G-proteins and G-protein-linked receptors.