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gov test 1 definitions
Terms in this set (67)
believed in monarchy
believed in legislature
jean Jacques Rousseau
particularly his formulation of social contract theory (or Contractarianism), strongly influenced the French Revolution and the development of Liberal, Conservative and Socialist theory.
best known for his thoughts on the separation of powers
lack of govt
SINGLE POWERFUL LEADER
ruled by few
a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president
interest of any nation through negotiations is always to be paramount in direct diplomacy. ... They negotiate in order to look after their own interest of their nation-states.
an early theory of democracy that holds that the best kind of government is one that promotes the "common good" and the welfare of an entire society
declaration of independence
written by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the Second Continental Congress, states the reasons the British colonies of North America sought independence in July of 1776.
social contract theory
the right to secure mutual protection and welfare or to regulate the relations among its member
explains and defends the checks and balances system in the Constitution
articles of confederation
(weak central government)
Successes: Land Ordinance (1785) and Northwest Ordinance (1787) BUT...
No power to tax
No chief executive
No national judiciary
No power to regulate in interstate or foreign commerce
an armed uprising in Massachusetts during 1786 and 1787.
Congress may, by a two-thirds vote in each chamber, propose a specific amendment; if at least three-fourths of the states (38 states) ratify it, the Constitution is amended
"Father of Const."
As the first Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton was the main author of the economic policies of the George Washington administration
served as the first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court among a variety of top government posts
a plan, unsuccessfully proposed at the Constitutional Convention, providing for a legislature of two houses with proportional representation in each house and executive and judicial branches to be chosen by the legislature.
new jersey plan
a plan, unsuccessfully proposed at the Constitutional Convention, providing for a single legislative house with equal representation for each state
legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution.
3/5 of the slaves would count for both purposes
Northern states wanted slaves to count for taxation, but not representation.
Southern states wanted the opposite.
structure of the US constitution
a Preamble, 7 articles, and 27 Amendments
tyranny of the majority
decisions made by a majority place its interests above those of an individual or minority group
a writ requiring a person to be brought before a judge or court, especially for investigation of a restraint of the person's liberty, used as a protection against illegal imprisonment.
ex post facto laws
A law that makes illegal an act that was legal when committed, increases the penalties for an infraction after it has been committed, or changes the rules of evidence to make conviction easier
Supporters: property owners, creditors, merchants.
Views: 1) Elites most fit to govern. 2) Feared "excesses" of democracy.3) Favored strong central government.
Supporters: small farmers, frontiersmen, debtors, shopkeepers.
Views:1) Feared concentration of power in hands of elites.2)Believed that gov't should be closer to the people.3)Feared strong central government. 4) Feared the lack of Bill of Rights
Madison, Hamilton, and Jay
To ratify Constitution in New York
separation of powers
Division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
checks and balances
System of restraints: each branch can check the other two (reflecting fear of tyranny)
bill of rights
a formal statement of the fundamental rights of the people of the United States, incorporated in the Constitution as Amendments 1-10, and in all state constitutions.
may be proposed either by the Congress with a two-thirds majority vote in both the House of Representatives and the Senate or by a constitutional convention called for by two-thirds of the State legislatures.
rules and roles of legislature branch
in charge of making laws
THOSE POWERS LISTED IN THE CONSTITUTION FOR THE FEDERAL GOVT .
ESTABLISH POST OFFICES
necessary and proper clause
The Congress shall have Power ... To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States
rules and roles of the executive branch
President of the United States, who also acts as head of state and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces.
rules and role of the supreme court
is the highest federal court of the United States
establishes the laws and treaties of the United States made in accordance with it as the supreme law of the land, forbids a religious test as a requirement for holding a governmental position
The central government is supreme
is a group of states joined together by a central government that has limited powers of authority.
A political system where the power to govern is shared between national and state governments
THOSE POWERS SHARED BY BOTH GOVTS.
THOSE POWERS RESERVED STRICTLY FOR THE STATES. (10th Amendment)
REGULATE STATE COMMERCE
National government = supreme
Rigid wall separates state govt. from national govt.
The relationship between nation and states is characterized by tension rather than cooperation
Overlapping functions of national and state government
National and state agencies act jointly rather than separately (New Deal)
Federal funds given to state governments to pay for goods, service, or programs with few restrictions on how the funds may be spent
Funds given by Congress to
states and localities, for specific categories
the passing on to a successor of an unexercised right.
Marbury v. Madison
mcculloch v. Maryland
In this case, the Supreme Court held that Congress has implied powers derived from those listed in Article I, Section 8. The "Necessary and Proper" Clause gave Congress the power to establish a national bank.
gibbons v. Ogden
This decision granted to Congress the power to regulate interstate (and foreign) commerce
US v. Lopez
limits the power of the fed. govt
dominated the Court for over three decades (34 years) and played a significant role in the development of the American legal system
Rights to Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, Petition
Right to Bear Arms
Quartering of Soldiers
Search and Seizure
Grand Jury, Double Jeopardy, Self-Incrimination, Due Process
Rights of Accused in Criminal Prosecutions: Rights to Jury Trial, to Confront Opposing Witnesses and to Counsel
Protections against Excessive Bail, Cruel and Unusual Punishment
Rights Reserved to States
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