52 terms

Sociology Theory Cards

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Interpretivism
An approach to sociology research which examines how different people in different situations interpret the social world. it focuses on human subjectivity.
The "I" and the "Me"
The "I" = Subjective self, that which acts
The "Me" = Objective self, that which is acted upon
Generalized other
Final stage of socialization in which the individual recognizes that his or her actions take place within a larger society, the requirements of which must be recognized and largely followed
Multidimensional Class Theory "Multidimensional Theory of Social Stratification"
Social class has three dimensions (as opposed to one dimension proposed by Marx)
1. Wealth
2. Party/Power
3. Status/Privilege
Rationalization Theory
Process by which industrial societies deal with increasing complexity by creating bureaucracies to organize social work more efficiently. Ultimately, this would lead to a proliferation of rules and procedures that exist only for their own sakes.
Iron Cage of Bureaucracy
Individual's loss of identity and meaning stifled by bureaucratic rationalization.
Ideal Types
An approach to studying society by creating an ideal model of a social structure and comparing the corresponding real structure to it.
Labor Theory of Value
The value of a good or service is created by those who actually do the labor. According to Marx, the surplus value created by shaping raw materials into finished products is stolen by the bourgeoisie as profit.
Weberian Theory
Approach to studying society that includes an understanding of the society's history, economy and culture as well as the lived experience of individuals within the society
Deterrence Theory
If the benefits of the deviant act outweigh the the cost, then people are more likely to be deviant. If the penalties are swift, sure, and severe, people will be weterre from deviant acts. Assumes that people are making rational decisions.
Labelling Theory
A deviant is one who has been effectively labelled as a deviant. Primary Deviance = the labelling process. Secondary Deviance = the person labelled accepts the label as valid. Tertiary Deviance = person labelled his deviance as normal
Subjectivity and Objectivity
Related to identity and perceptions of the individual. Subjectivity is those areas that are influenced by individual choices and goals. Objectivity is those areas in which the individual is being acted upon by outside forces outside of his or her control.
Verstehen
Approach to social research emphasizing human motizations
Value Consensus
Functionalist description of the overall agreement over and conformity to given mores and norms in society resulting from successful socialization.
Symbolic Interactionism
1. Human beings act based on how they interpret symbolic meaning.
2. Meaning is negotiated through interactions.
3. Meaning is subject to further negotiation.
Action Theory
Another term for Interactionism based upon the idea that society is created from the bottom up by individuals interacting and going through their daily routines.
Collective Consience
Expression of society's collective will, or the values everyone accepts that shape individual beliefs and choices.
Critical Theory
Focused on understanding, critiquing and ultimately changing society by analyzing the underlying ideologies that influence our social relationships and power structures.
Structuralism
Approach to social theory that assumes that social structures largely determines human behavior.
Thomas Theorem
What a man {[people] perceive[s] to be real becomes real in its consequences.
Exchange Theory
Model of looking at interaction as a form of exchange in which the participants seek a benefit from the interaction
Weberian Theory of Legitimate Authority
There are 3 types of state authority:
1. Rational legal (dominant in modern societies)
2. Traditional
3. Charismatic
Weberian Theory of the State
The modern state is an administrative structure with 3 elements:
1. Territoriality: It has clear jurisdiction
2. Violence: War and policicing
3. Legitimacy: In the eyes of the citizen
Anomie
Situation in which the norms and values are not clear, leaving people without rules through which to guide their behavior.
Differential Association Theory
People who associate deviance are more likely to become deviant themselves.
Economic Determinism
Assumption that individual and group behavior is determined by economic factors such as accessing resources.
Manifest and latent Functions
Manifest Functions: Those openly expressed by the institutions
Latent Functions: Unintended consequences of the functions
Can also be Manifest and Latent Dysfunctions
Black Feminism
Analyzes how racism, feminism, and social class serve as combined forces of discrimination that contribute to each other.
Interaction Perspective
Sociological perspective that explains society as the sum of all interactions between individuals.
Determinism
Assumption that individual or group behavior is determined by forces outside of human agency. Human being have no choice in their outcomes.
Ethnomethodology
Method of research which focuses on the rules and scripts people use to create meaning in everyday life. One famous technique is to violate a rule and observe the response from others.
post modernism
Social perspective that assumes that the contemporary world can no longer be understood by using "modern" theories based on reason. Because of media, consumerism, globalism and technology, human identity can only be understood in the terms of personal narratives and how those personal narratives are shaped and negotiated.
Feminist Theory "Feminism"
More of a perspective that looks at the ways in which women are systematically disadvantaged in society. Makes the assumption that women deserve equal status with men.
Functionalist Perspective
Theoretical perspective that emphasizes the function of social structures. often assumes that long term structures exist because they serve a function for perpetuating a stable society.
Radical Feminism
Examine the role of men, both individually and collectively in patriarchal society, in oppressing women. Until patriarchy can be destroyed, women will continue to be oppressed.
Positivism
An approach to sociology research which applies scientific methods used in the natural sciences to study social phenomena. The approach focuses on objective observation and external influences on human behavior.
Conflict Perspective "conflict structuralism"
Sociological perspective that explains society as composed of social groups that exist in a state of conflict for power and economic resources. The dominant group imposes order on subordinate groups.
Neo-Marxist Theory
Theory that explains how capitalists maintain power over the working class by using ideological state apparatuses like the media, politics and education to keep the working class from creating a class consciousness.
Marxist Theory
Conflict Theory that sees social conflict as competition for resources. In which one group holds the wealth resources and the other must submit in order to get access to the resources. In capitalist societies the Bourgeoisie holds the capital and the proletariat must sell its labor to survive.
Dialectical Materialism
Model of history is which competition between groups that hold the wealth and groups that do not drives social change. In Marxist theory, this competition will lead to the revolution of the proletariat overthrowing the capitalists and creating a classless, communist society.
Looking Glass Self
Explains identity formation as a process of interaction in which the individual
1. Plans an interaction
2. Evaluates the interaction based on how he/she perceives the other is responding
3. Incorporates positively received interactions into their sense of self
Phenomenology
Approach to sociology that tries to link Interactionism to Functionalism. Society is composed of structural "phenomena" that is both negotiated and interpreted through interaction.
Organic and Mechanical Soliditarity
Description of how historical changes lead to changes in social solidarity (bonds that hold people together). Organic Solidarity, common in pre-industrial times, are bonds based on shared traditions and values. Mechanical Solidarity, rising from industrial society, is held together through mutual interdependence.
Marxist Feminism
Examines capitalism as the key factor in women's subordination including unpaid "women's work" done in the family, exploitation in the marketplace, and commodifying women's sexuality in advertising.
Social Control Theory
Human behavior is constrained by two kinds of social controls;
External Social Controls: Rewards (Positive Sanctions) & Punishments (Negative Sanctions)
Social Constructionism "Social Constructs of Reality"
Theory that human understanding of reality is social constructed through language and interaction, the repetition of this interaction (habituation), industrialization, and internalized by individuals.
Structuration Theory
Theory attempts to unify Functionalism with Interactionism. Through interaction, individuals create structures (rules + resources). These structures then constrain future interactions, but are also shaped by future interactions.
Liberal Feminism
Examines the influence of sexism based on traditional gender roles and discrimination as key obstacles to equality for women. Advocate for equal opportunities in key institutions like education, workplace and the family.
Dramaturgy "Performance Management"
Model for analyzing interaction as a stage performance in which the identity of the individuals is contingent upon the stage or setting and the expected roles of the interactants.
Alienation
In General, a sense of meaninglessness, powerlessness
and isolation of individuals in a society.
Used by Marx to describe the disconnect
between the proletariat and the benefits of their
own labor that is stolen by the Bourgeoisie.
Strain Theory
Deviance is the result of social strain between the
goals set by society and the legitimate means of
achieving those goals.
Conformists: Accept the goals and means
Innovators: Accept the goals reject the means
Ritualists: Reject the goals Accept the means
Retreatists: Reject both
Rebels: Seek to change goals and/or means
Dual Consciousness Theory
State in which African Americans must be aware
of themselves in a personal context, but also
aware of how the dominant world perceives
them (usually as a problem). This can be applied
to members of any subordinate group.
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