66 terms

Ap Government Unit One

those institutions that make authoritative public policies for society as a whole
political participation
all the activites that peopleas a whole are engaged in
policymaking system
a set of institutions and activities that link together
linkage institutions
parties, elections, intrest groups, and the media are linkage between the citizens and the government
policy agenda
when people confront government officials with problems they expect them to solve, they are trying to influence the policy agenda
policymaking institutions
congress, the presidency, and the courts
public policy
a choice that government makes in response to some issue on its agenda
policy impacts
effects that policy has on people and society's problems
a means of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences
traditional democratic theory
equality in voting, effective participation, enlightened understanding, citizen control of the government, and inclusion
majority rule
the principle that the greater number should exercise greater power
minority rights
induvidual rights to anyone who is not included in majority decisions.
the action of speaking or acting on behalf of soneone or the state of being si represented
pluralist theory
contends that many centers of influence compete for power overpunlic policy, with no one group or set of groups dominating
elite and class theory
society is divided along class lines and that an upper class elite rules
the existence of too many influential groups actually make it impossible for governments to act
policy gridlock
the large number of and diversity of intrest groups coupled with the decentralized nature of government makes it easy to prevent policy formulation and implementation
political culture
five elements of american political culture support, shape, and define its democracy
one of jeffersons inalienable rights. american are supportive of cuvil liberties and personal freedom
of, relating to, or believing in the principle that all people are equal and deserve equal rightsand opportunites
a social theory favoring freedom of action for individuals over collective or state control
an economic doctrine that opposes government regulation of or interference in commerce beyond the minimum necessary for a free-enterprise system to operate according to its own economic laws
the "of the people" in lincolns famous description of democracy
gross domestic products
the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a countries boarders in a specific time period. usually calculated on a annual basis
a nations basic law
declaration of independence
a political polemic, announcing and justifying a revolution. today it is more of a statement of philosophy
the second treatise of civil government
written by john locke, influenced american leaders
natural rights
before governments arise, people exist in a state of nature where they are only governed bythe laws of nature
natural law
brings natural rights, including life liberty, and property
consent of the governed
okay with the people
limited government
not all powerful
constitutional convention
the convention of united states statesmen who drafted the united states constitution in 1787
american revolution
the revolution of the american colonies against great britian 1775-1783
articles of confederation
the nations first governing document
shay's rebellion
spurred the birth of the constitutio
n and reaffirmed the belief of the philadelpia delegates that the new federal government needed to be a strong one
U.S. Constitution
the institutional structure of the U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform
a small, organized, dissening group within a larger one, in politics
the state if being equal in status, rights, and opportunites
connecticut compromise
a bicameral legislation with equal representation in the senate and representation based on popluation in the house of represenatives
3/5ths compromise
how to count slaves. they are worth 3/5ths of a person
political equality
some delegates wanted all men to vote, others wanted the qualification of owning property. left up to the states
writ of habeas corpus
can be imprisioned without being charged with a crime
seperation of powers
each branch of government was to be independant of the others
checks and balances
keeps the branches in line
a system based on the concent of the governed in which power is exercised by represenatives
supported the constitution
opposed the constitution
federalist papers
a series of essays written by james madison, alexander hamilton, and john jay in defense of the constitution
bill of rights
federalist added the first to amendments to not restrict personal freedom
formal amendments
change the langauge of the constitution based on article 5
informally amended
judicial interpretation, customs, or political practices
unwritten constitution
tradition, practice, and procedure, that when altered may change the spirit of the constitution
equal rights amendment
example of a prosed, not ratified amendment
judicial interpretation
changes political practices
the balance if power between tbe states and feds
unitary governments
all power resides in the central government
the feds are weak, and the states have the most power
intergovernmental relations
set of interactions among national, state, and local governments
supremacy clause
the constitution is supreme law if the land
10th amendment
the national government has only those powers specifically assigned
McCulloch v. Maryland
congress has certain implied powers and that national policies take precedent over state policies
elastic clause
was interpreted to give congress certain implied powers that go beyond its enumerated powers
enumerated powers
specifically listed powers
civil war
struggle between states and national government
brown v. board of education
overturned sperate but equal
full faith and credit