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parties, elections, intrest groups, and the media are linkage between the citizens and the government
when people confront government officials with problems they expect them to solve, they are trying to influence the policy agenda
a means of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences
traditional democratic theory
equality in voting, effective participation, enlightened understanding, citizen control of the government, and inclusion
the action of speaking or acting on behalf of soneone or the state of being si represented
contends that many centers of influence compete for power overpunlic policy, with no one group or set of groups dominating
the existence of too many influential groups actually make it impossible for governments to act
the large number of and diversity of intrest groups coupled with the decentralized nature of government makes it easy to prevent policy formulation and implementation
five elements of american political culture support, shape, and define its democracy
one of jeffersons inalienable rights. american are supportive of cuvil liberties and personal freedom
of, relating to, or believing in the principle that all people are equal and deserve equal rightsand opportunites
a social theory favoring freedom of action for individuals over collective or state control
an economic doctrine that opposes government regulation of or interference in commerce beyond the minimum necessary for a free-enterprise system to operate according to its own economic laws
gross domestic products
the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a countries boarders in a specific time period. usually calculated on a annual basis
declaration of independence
a political polemic, announcing and justifying a revolution. today it is more of a statement of philosophy
before governments arise, people exist in a state of nature where they are only governed bythe laws of nature
the convention of united states statesmen who drafted the united states constitution in 1787
spurred the birth of the constitutio
n and reaffirmed the belief of the philadelpia delegates that the new federal government needed to be a strong one
the institutional structure of the U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform
a bicameral legislation with equal representation in the senate and representation based on popluation in the house of represenatives
some delegates wanted all men to vote, others wanted the qualification of owning property. left up to the states
a system based on the concent of the governed in which power is exercised by represenatives
a series of essays written by james madison, alexander hamilton, and john jay in defense of the constitution
tradition, practice, and procedure, that when altered may change the spirit of the constitution
McCulloch v. Maryland
congress has certain implied powers and that national policies take precedent over state policies
was interpreted to give congress certain implied powers that go beyond its enumerated powers
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