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151 terms

A & P Exam #2

STUDY
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Ellipsoid Joints
The joints that connect the four fingers with the metacarpal bones
Covered by Perichondrium
Which of these is not a property of articular cartilage
Shoulder
Which of the following joints is an example of a ball and socket joint
Thyroid Hormone
Elevates the rate of energy consumption in resting and active skeletal muscles
Testosterone
Primary sex hormone in males
Epinephrine
Stimulates muscle metabolism and increases duration and stimulation of the force of a contraction
Myoglobin
Red pigment in slow fibers
Calmodulin
Activates myosin light chain kinase
Gliding
Which type of joint is found between the carpal bones
Increases osmotic pressure within joint
Which of the following is not a function of synovial fliud
Glenohumeral
The shoulder joint, or _______ joints, permits the greatest range of motion of any joint
Flexion of the forearm
Contraction of the muscle that is attached to the radial tuberosity results in
Bursa
Small pockets of synovial fluid that reduce friction and act as a shock absorber where ligaments and tendons rub against other tissues
Arthritis
A general term for pain and stiffness that affects the skeletal or muscular system
Elevation
Which of the following movements would you associate with chewing foods
Reinforce the joint capsule & limit range of movements
The "rotator cuff" of the shoulder functions to
Gliding Joint
Sacroillic Joint
Pivot Joint
Proximal Radioulnar Joint
Hinge Joint
Ankle Joint
Ellipsoid Joint
Radiocarpal Joint
Inversion
A common injury to the ankle occurs by excessive turning of the sole inward
White-water kayakers & Baseball Pitchers
Which of the following atheletes are at greatest risk of developing a rotator cuff injury
Flexion & Extension
Normal movement of the hip joint during walking
Buccinator
Compresses cheeks
Risorius
Draws corner of the mouth to the side
Nasalis
Elevates corners of the nostrils
Platysma
Tenses skin of the neck
Occipitofrontalis
Raises eyebrows
Hyaline Cartilage
What type of tissue occurs at articular cartilage
Meniscus
Which structure acts as a cushion and consists of fibrocartilage
Genioglossus
Depresses and protracts tongue
Hyoglossus
Depresses and retracts tongue
Palatoglossus
Elevates the tongue
Styloglossus
Retracts tongue and elevates side
Articulation
The location where 2 bones meet; also called a joint
Moving the hand toward the shoulder
Which of the following movements is a good example of flexion
Bony, synovial, fibrous, cartilaginous
Joints can be classified as:
Tibial Collateral
The medial surface of the knee joint is reinforced by the ______ ligament
Act as cushions and conform to the shape of the articulating surfaces
In the knee joint, the medial and lateral menisci
Dorsiflexion
Lifting a stone with the tip of the foot
Sacroilliac
The coxal bones articulate with the sacrum at the ________ joint
Twitch
A product of a single contraction-relation cycle in a muscle fiber
The more movement a joint allows, the stronger the joint
All of the following statements are true, except:
Triad
The complex of a transverse tubule and 2 adjacent terminal cisternae is known as
Hyperextension
An extension past the anatomical position
Dorsiflexion
All of the following movements occur at the inter-vertebral joints, except
Bursa
Small flud filled pockets in connective tissue
Syndesmosis
A ligamentous connection such as an interosseus ligament
Cruciate
The ligaments that limit the anterior-posterior movement of the femur and maintain the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles are the _____ ligaments
Plantar Flexion
Which foot movement enables the ballerina to stand on her toes
Extreme bending of the head backwads
Which of the following movements is a good example of hyperextension
Flexes
Curling into the "fetal position" _____ the intervertebral joints
Turning the hand palm upward
Which of the following is a good example of supination
Opposition
To pinch with a thumb and finger involves a movement called
Lever
A rigid structure that moves on a fixed point
Synarthrosis
A suture is an example of
Eversion
A twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole of the foot outward
Synarthrosis
Immovable joint
Amphiarthrosis
Slightly movable joint
Diarthrosis
Freely movable joint
Pivot
Which of the following types of joints is monoaxial, but capable of only rotation
Fasicles
Muscle fibers in skeletal muscle form bundles called
Gomphosis
The synarthrosis that binds the teeth to the bony sockets
Aponeurosis
Broad tendinous sheet
Gliding
The intercarpal articulations are ______ joints
Medial meniscus
The most common athletic knee injury produces damage to the:
Humero-ulnar Joint
The largest and strongest articulation at the elbow
Ellipsoid
The radiocarpal joint is an
Shoulder
The joint that permits the greatest range of mobility of any joint in the body is the
Hyperextension
Extending a body part past the anatomical position
Dislocation
Occurs when articulating surfaces are forced out of position
Popliteal
Back of the knee joint is reinforced by _____ ligaments
Flexion & Extension
Nodding your head "yes" is an example of
Raphe
In a convergent muscle, fascicles converage on a common attachment site that may be a slender band of collagen fibers known as
Patellar
The ligament that provides support to the front of the knee joint is the _____ ligament
Amphiarthrosis
Structurally, the pubic symphysis is classified as an _______ articulation
Opening the mouth
Which of the following movements is a good example of depression
It is composed of hyaline cartilage
Which of the following is not a characteristic of articular cartilage
Syndesmosis
An epiphyseal line is an example of
Adduction
The movement of rotating a limb toward the anterior surface of the body
Saddle
The joint between the trapezium and metacarpal bone of the thumb is an example of an _____ joint
Abduction
Movement away from the midline of the body
Anterior cruciate ligament
Which of the following ligaments is not associated with the hip joint
Myosatellite cells
Stem cells located between the endomysium and sarcolemma that function in the repair of damaged muscle tissue
Rheumatoid arthritis
The primary sign of _____ is synovitis, swelling and inflammation of the synovial membrane
Guard the body entrances and exits, produce movement, maintain body temperature, maintain posture
Which of the following is a recognized function of the skeletal muscle
Synchondrosis, Synostosis, Gomphosis, Suture
Which of this is one of the four major types of synarthrotic joints
Articular
Arthritis always involves damage to the ____ cartilages, but the specific cause can vary
The knee contains 7 major ligaments
Complete dislocation of the knee is rare because
Strain
A tear in the muscle
First Class Lever
Extension of the neck
Second Class lever
Plantar Flexion
Third Class lever
Elbow flexion
Fibrous Cartilage
Syndesmosis is to ligament as symphysis is to
Amphiarthrosis
A slightly movable joint
7
The knee joint is stabilized by how many ligaments
Movement can occur in all three axes
Triaxial articulation
Foot
The movements known as dorsiflexion and plantar flexion involve moving the
Diarthrosis
A freely movable joint
Gliding
The joints between vertebrae are examples of _____ joints
Olecranon process
Muscles that extend the elbow attach to the
Inside the joint cavity
Dislocations are quite painful due to stimulation of pain receptors. One place these receptors are absent is
Hinge
The ankle joint is an example of _____ joint
Hinge
Monaxial joints are known as _____ joints
Depression
The movement of a body part downward
Rolling
All of the following are structural classifications of synovial joints, except
Coracoacromial & Coracoclavicular
Which of the following ligaments assist in stabilization of the shoulder joint
Protrusion of the nucleus pulposus
A herniated intervertebral disc is caused by
Around blood vessels
Bursae are found in all of the following areas, except
Synovial Membrane
Which of these is not considered to be an accessory synovial structure
Slick & Smooth
The surface of articular cartilage
Synarthrosis
An immovable joint
Hinge
The elbow joint
Tetanus
An infection by the bacterium clostridium tetani can cause the disease called
Gomphosis
dense connective tissue is to a suture as a periodontal ligament is to a(n)
Spreading the fingers
Which of the following movements is a good example of abduction
Acromioclavicular
Which ligament connects the clavicle and the acromion
Stylohyoid
Elevates larynx
Thyrohyoid
Elevates thyroid cartilage
Mylohyoid
Elevates floor of mouth
Digastric
Depresses mandible
The ulna and humerus interlock
The elbow joint is extremely stable because
Diarthrosis
A synovial joint is an example of an
Fat pads
Usually found outside the capsule, _______ protect the articular cartilages and act as packing material for the joint
Lateral Rotation
The movement of rotating a limb outward
Protract
Grasping your upper lip with your lower teeth
Upward
The movement of the body upward
Lined by secretory epithelium
Which of the following is not a property of synovial joints
Diarthrosis
A synovial joint is an example of
sacromorous
The tension that can be produced by a skeletal muscle is related to the resting length of its ______
Fat pads
The structures that assist the bursae in reducing friction between the patella and other tissues are the
Strong muscular padding, almost complete bony socket, supporting ligaments, tough capsule
Factors that increase the stability of the hip joint include
Ball & socket/Diarthrosis
The hip joint can also be referred to as the _______ joint
Parallel muscle
Biceps brachii muscle
Convergent muscle
Pectoralis muscle
Circular Muscle
Obicularis oris muscle
Unipennate muscle
Extensor digitroum muscle
Skeletal muscle
Surrounded by epimysium and contains muscle fascicles
Myofibril
Surrounded by sacroplasmic reticulum and consists of sarcomeres
Muscle fascicle
Surrounded by perimysium and contains muscle fibers
Muscle fiber
Surrounded by endomysium and contains myofibrils
Sarcomere
Contains thick and thin filaments
Bunion
Tender nodule formed around bursae over the base of the great toe
Origin
The end of a muscle that remains stationary when the muscle contracts
Glenoid labrium
The glenoid fossa is rimmed by the ______
Neuromuscular functions
Communication between axons and muscle fibers occurs at specialized synapses
Diaphragmatic hernia
A portion of the stomach is forced into pleural cavity
Incersion point
The end of a muscle that is attached to the point that moves when the muscle contracts
Meniscus
______ subdivide synovial cabities, channel the flow of synovial fliud, and allow for variations in the shapes of the articular surfaces
Patella
The ligament that encloses the _____ attaches to the tibial tuberocity
Tetanus
A muscle produces its highest tension when in complete _____