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A&P: Body Orientation
Terms in this set (54)
the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships.
the study of how the body's structural machinery
Subdivisions of Anatomy
- Systemic Anatomy
- Gross Anatomy
- Surface Anatomy
- Microscopic Anatomy
Subdivisions of Physiology
: concerns urine production & kidney function.
: the workings of the nervous system.
: concerns the operation of the heart & blood vessels.
- Chemical Level
- Cellular Level
- Tissue Level
- Organ Level
- Organ System
Atoms form molecules
Cells & other subunits
A group of cells performing a common function
A discrete structure made up of more than one tissue
Organs working together for a common purpose
The result of all levels working together
The Integumentary System
•Forms external body covering
• Protects deeper tissues from injury
• Synthesizes vitamin D
• Site of cutaneous receptors (pain, pressure, etc.) and sweat and oil glands
The Skeletal System
• Protects and supports body organs
• Provides a framework for muscles
• Blood cells formed within bones
The Muscular System
• Allows manipulation
• Facial expressions
• Maintains posture
• Produces heat
The Nervous System
• Fast-acting control system
• Responds to internal and external changes
The Endocrine System
• Glands secrete hormones that regulate
* Nutrient use
The Cardiovascular System
•Blood vessels transport blood
• Carries oxygen and carbon dioxide
• Also carries nutrients and wastes
• Heart pumps blood through blood vessels
The Lymphatic System
• Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels
• Disposes of debris in the lymphatic system
• Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes)
• Mounts attack against foreign substances in the body
The Respiratory System
• Keeps blood supplied with oxygen
• Removes carbon dioxide
• Gas exchange occurs through walls of air sacs in the lungs
The Digestive System
• Breaks down food into absorbable units
• Indigestible foodstuffs eliminated as feces
The Urinary System
• Eliminates nitrogenous wastes
• Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance
• Overall function is to produce offspring
• Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones
• Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones
• Mammary glands produce milk
A common "starting point"
How to do anatomical position:
1. Stands erect with feet slightly apart
2. Facing forward
3. Arms at the side
4. Palms face forward with the thumbs facing outward.
Divides the body into
right & left halves
Parasagittal Plane or Sagittal Plane
Divides the body into right & left halves that are
Frontal Plane/Coronal Plane
Vertical line that divides the body into
front and back
Transverse Plane/Horizontal Plane
Divides the body into
top and bottom
Names of specific body areas
The main axis of the body
* Refers to the body in anatomical position
* Standardized terms of directions are paired terms
Toward the head end or the upper part of a structure or the body; above
Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
Toward or at the front of the body; in front of
Toward or at the back if the body; behind
Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of.
Closer to the origin of the body or the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk
Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
Toward or at the body surface
Away from the body surface; more internal
On the same side
On opposite sides
Dorsal/posterior body cavity
Cavity subdivided into the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity.
Houses the brain.
Runs through the vertebral column and encloses the spinal cord.
Contains heart & lungs.
Contains digestive organs, liver, kidneys, and peritoneal cavity.
Contains the reproductive and excretory organs.
The use of the diaphragm:
The diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
Located within the mouth.
Situated inside the nose.
Holds the eyes.
Middle ear cavities
Found in the skull.