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90944 acids & bases
Terms in this set (47)
The smallest unit of matter
Is a negatively charged particle which moves freely outside the nucleus
Is a positively charged particle which is found in the nucleus
Is a neutral particle which is found in the nucleus
Is the centre of an atom which contains protons and neutrons
Is the number of protons and electrons that are found in the atom
Is the number of protons and neutrons that are found in the nucleus of the atom
A substance that contains only one type of atom
Is when two or more elements are chemically bonded together in either covalent or ionic bonds.
Is a group found horizontally in the periodic table. There are 7 periods and this indicates the number of energy level shells the elements have
Is a group found vertically in the periodic table. There are 18 periods and this indicates the number of electrons in the valence shell
Is a charged atom, which has been charged by either losing or gaining electrons. This results in the atom being stable.
A positively charged ion, losing electrons
A negatively charged ion, gaining electron/s
An ion consisting of a single atom
An ion consisting of more than one atom covalently bonded
Is the distribution of electrons in an atom or electron. (2 in first shell, 8 in second, 8 in third, etc)
Is a chemical entity which donates an electron to another compound
Attractive forces between oppositely charged ions
The kinetic theory of matter (particle theory) says that all matter consists of many, very small particles which are constantly moving or in a continual state of motion.
The collision theory state that in order for a reaction to occur reactant particles must collide with sufficient force and correct orientation.
When molecules collide with sufficient energy and proper orientation, so that a reaction occurs
The abundance of a constituent/solute divided by the total volume of a mixture
If the surface area of a reactant is increased: More particles are exposed to the other reactant
The energy an object has due to its motion
The speed of a reaction (using up of reactants, producing of products)
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change or participating in the reaction
The minimum quantity of energy which the reacting species must possess in order to undergo a specified reaction
A substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction
A substance that is formed as the result of a chemical reaction
A chemical equation tells you which chemicals reacted together (the reactants) and the new chemicals that were made in the reaction (the products).
A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols and formulae
Balanced symbol equation
A symbol equation in which there are equal numbers of each type of atom on the side of the reactants and that of the products
having a pH of less than 7, more H+ ions that OH- ions.
Having a pH of above 7 and having more OH- ions than H+ ions.
An alkali also can be defined as a base that dissolves in water
pH of 7, when there is an equal concentration of H+ and OH- ions
Is the strength of a solution, the amount of dissolved substance in a given volume of solvent
A dilute solution has a low concentration of the solute compared to the solvent
Splitting of ionic compounds into their ionic forms
High level of dissociation
Low level of dissociation
Is a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react quantitatively with each other. In a reaction in water, neutralisation results in there being no excess of hydrogen or hydroxide ions present in solution
A salt is an ionic compound that results from the neutralisation reaction of an acid and a base.
A pH value is a number from 1 to 14, with 7 as the middle (neutral) point. Values below 7 indicate acidity which increases as the number decreases, 1 being the most acidic.
Is a indicator to show an acid or base. Blue litmus paper turns red under acid conditions, and red litmus paper turns blue under alkaline conditions.
A universal indicator is a solution which undergoes several color changes over a wide range of pH's. The color is used to "indicate" pH directly.
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