Immunology Ch1 Abbas
Terms in this set (51)
Whats the ability to not attack your self antigens?
Any sub-stance that is speciﬁcally recognized by lympho-cytes or antibodies is called an
The two types of adaptive immunity
called humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity
Humoral immunity is mediated by proteins called
Antibodies are produced by cells called
B lymphocytes (recognize loads of crap)
B lymphocytes ultimately block infection from _____ microbes
Antibodies stop microbes in mucosal surfaces/blood from gaining access to connective tissues, but cannot gain access to microbes that live and divide inside infected cells. What defense can kill intracellular microbes?
Cell-mediated immunity is mediated by cells, which are called
T lymphocytes (only recognize one)
T lymphocytes can become what two cells?
Helper T lymphocytes and Cytotoxic T lymphocytes
Helper T lymphocytes eliminate ______ microbes
Cytotoxic T lympho-cytes kill _____ ____ and eliminate resiviors of infection
What type of immunity is where an antigens of a microbe mounts an ac-tive response to eradicate the infection and develops resistance to that microbe?
What type of immunity is where a naive individual re-ceives antibodies or cells from another individual already immune to an in-fection. (birth)
What is specificity?
The ability to distinguish between many antigens
What is the hypoth-esis where clones of lymphocytes speciﬁc for different antigens that develop before an encounter with these antigens, and each antigen elicits an immune response by selecting and activating the lymphocytes of a speciﬁc clone?
What is the ﬁrst exposure to antigen called, and what are they initiated by?
primary immune response
Initiated by lymphocytes called naive (inexperienced) lymphocytes (just have receptors they dont kill them niave cells die by apoptosis)
Subsequent exposure to the same antigen lead to responses called, and is the activation of what cell?
secondary immune responses
activation of memory lymphocytes
What is it called when lymphocytes are activated by antigens, and proliferate, making many of the clonal progeny cells, with the same antigen speciﬁcity?
(rapidly increases the number of cells speciﬁc for the antigen encountered and ensures that adaptive im-munity keeps pace with rapidly proliferating microbes.)
What are the two Lymphocytes and what do they do?
B lymphocytes humoral immunity
T lymphocytes cell mediated immunity
What are the antigen presenting cells and what do they do?
dendritic- start T response
macrophages-effector phase of cell mediated
Follicular dendritic cells- display antigens to B cells in the humoral response
What are the effector cells and what do they do?
T lymphocytes activation of phagocytosis and killing microbes
macrophages phagocytosis and killing microbes
granulocytes killing microbes
What types of cells destroy microbes and are niave cells that have differentiated?
Most T lymphocytes recognize peptide fragments of protein antigens bound _____ called anti-gen-presenting cells?
External pathway Th is ____
Endogenous pathway Tc is____
CD4 T cells are called __________ because they do what?
helper T cells
help B lymphocytes to produce antibodies and help phagocytes to destroy ingested microbes.
Effector CD4 T cells (helper T cells) produce proteins called
______ that activate B cells, macrophages, and other cell types
CD8 T lymphocytes are called _______ because they do what?
cytotoxic T lymphocytes
(CTLs) because they kill cells harboring intracellular microbes
What are regulatory T lymphocytes and what do they do?
T cells prevent or supresses the immune responses
Mature lymphocytes are produced (generated) are called the ___________ organs Mature lymphocytes then leave and enter the circulation and the _________
organs to encounter antigen for which they express speciﬁc receptors
The effector cells of B lymphocyte are antibody-secreting cells, called?
(in the peripheral lymphoid organs, where they may stay and produce antibodies)
What cells capture protein antigens of microbes entering through the epithelia and transport the antigens to lymph nodes, where they display portions of the antigens for recognition by T lymphocytes?
Naive T lymphocytes must see protein antigens presented by dendritic cells to initiate clonal expansion and differentiation of the T cells into effector and memory cells. For this reason, dendritic cells are considered the most efﬁcient and specialized what?
What cell resides in the germinal centers of lymphoid follicles in the peripheral lymphoid organs and displays antigens that stimulate the differentiation of B cells in the follicles?
follicular dendritic (nonmigratory)
B lymphocytes are attracted to and retained in the follicles because of the action of a class of cytokines called?
What type of lymphocytes constantly recirculate between the blood and peripheral lymphoid organs, where they may be activated by antigens to become effector cells, and the effector lymphocytes migrate from lymphoid tissues to sites of infection, where microbes are eliminated
Best two principals about innate immunity?
What is initiated by all microbes which circulates blood leukocytes (e.g., phagocytes and lymphocytes) and various plasma proteins (e.g., complement, antibodies, ﬁbrinogen) to sites of infection to destroy the microbes and repair damaged tissue?
The innate immune system populates all tissues with sentinel cells, such as?
macrophages, dendritic cells and mast cells, which express many different cell surface and intracellular molecules that recognize thousands of common features of different classes of microbes, such as bacteria cell walls, or viral nucleic acids.
What are the three proposed theories of Immunology and which one was right?
Clonal-selection theory (right)
The ____ theory is where an antigen binds to a receptor and makes more receptors
The ____ theory is where an antiody adapts and is told what to do
The _____ theory is where 1) A hematopoietic stem cell undergoes differentiation and genetic rearrangement to produce 2) immature lymphocytes with many different antigen receptors. Those that bind to 3) antigens from the body's own tissues are destroyed, while the rest mature into 4) inactive lymphocytes.
What is the function of signal pathways?
amplify, receive, disperse the signal
Why signaling starts with a receptor?
What is a secondary messenger?
What happens if tolerance breaks down?
They have an immune disease
Epitopes are sections of _____ which is just section of protein
How can you activate all the cells with one hormone?
Signal reception (transmembrane protein to get in the cell)
Signal Dispersion (transduction)
Why is phosphorylation the most common post-translation modification of protiens?
Is it easily reversible?
What effects does phosphorylation have on proteins?
What amino acids side chains are phosphorylated?
Because ATP is everywhere
Yes with phosphytase enzyme (covalent bonds)
Changes shape of protien
Alcohol serine, therine, tyrosine
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