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What has happened to the weight of an infant by 6 months?

it has doubled

What has happened to the infant's weight by 1 year?

it has tripled

How does the height increase during the first 6 months?

it increases by 1 inch per month

What happens to the birth length by 1 year?

it has increased by almost 50%

Where does the length increase mostly in infants?

in the trunk

When does the posterior fontanel close?

within 6 to 8 weeks

When does the anterior fontanel close?

12 to 18 months

What does the brain weight increase to by 1 year?

2 1/2 times

What is the chest circumference equal to by the end of the first year?

the head circumference

What is the increase in the heart by the end of the 1st year?


What is the often the rhythm of the heart rate in infants?

sinus arrhythmia (rate increases with inspiration and decrease with expiration)

What is a common blood change by in the first 2 to 3 months?

physiologic anemia (RBCs life is shortened)

When do the digestive functions begin?

by age 3 months (drooling begins)

How does gastric digestion occur in the stomach?

through the action of hydrochloric acid and rennin

How does rennin work?

causes the formation of curds so that milk can be digested

What is the most immature of all gastrointestinal organs throughout infancy?


When has the immunologic system reached adult levels?

by 9 months old

When does complete maturity of the kidney occur?

latter part of the second year

When does grasping occur in infancy?

in the first 2-3 months

What type of grasping occurs at first?


What position are the hands mostly in at 1 month and 3 months?

1 month=open
3 months= closed

When is the infant able to voluntarily grasp?

5 months

When are infants able to old their bottle, grasp their feet and pull them to their mouths,and feed themselves a cracker?

at 6 months

When are infants able to move items from one hand to another, use one hand for grasping, and hold a cube in both hands?

7 months

When does the infant develop a crude pincer grasp?

8-10 months

When does the infant develop a neat pincer grasp?

11 months

When is the infant able to pick up a raisin and other finger foods?

10 months

When can infants put objects into a container and like to remove them?

11 months

When do infants try to build a tower blocks but fail?

1 year

When can infants hold their head up?

3 months

When can infants hold their head and chest up, bearing weight on their forearms?

4 months

When is head control well established?

4-6 months

If a child displays head lag at 6 months....?

they should have an evaluation

When can a child roll from abdomen to back?

5 months

When can a child roll from back to abdomen?

6 months

When doe the parachute response occur?

at 7 months

What position is acceptable when an infant is awake and why?

enhances creeping, crawling, and turning over

Why should the head be placed on alternating sides before the infant is able to roll over?

to prevent positional plagiocephaly

When does the convex lumbar curve develop?

3-4 months when head control is established

When can an infant sit alone, leaning forward on their hands for support?

7 months

When can an infant sit up unsupported?

8 months

When can infants move from prone to sitting position?

10 months

When are infants able to bear all weight on their legs with assistance?

at 6-7 months

What is propelling forward with belly on the floor?


What is propelling forward with the belly off the floor and on knees?


When does crawling progress to creeping?

at 9 months

When can they pull themselves up on furniture?

at 9 months, but they can't move back down

When can infants walk by holding hands onto furniture with both hands?

11 months

When can infants walk with one hand?

1 year

What Erickson's stage are infants in?

trust vs. mistrust

What can the failure to learn delayed gratification lead to?


What are newborns primarily?

narcissistic concern for oneself

What are the two social modalities that occur with infants?

grasping and biting

What are the first perceptions that an infant has of their body?

kinesthetic and tactile and they realize they are distinct from their parents

What social development does an infant have?

attachment and play

What are the 2 components of cognitive development required for attachment?

the ability to discriminate the mother from others
and the achievement of object permanence

When do infants begin to smile, cry, and vocalize more to their mother?

8-12 weeks

When do infants show distinct preference to their mother?

6 months

When do infants begin attaching to other members of the family?

1 month after mother

What is a psychologic and developmental problem that stems from maladaptive or absent attachment between infant and mother?

reactive attachment disorder

What are the 2 different patterns of RAD?

emotionally withdrawn inhibited pattern
indiscriminate-disinhibited pattern

When does infant become aware of the separateness of mother and child?

between 4-8 months, first progression through separation-individuation

When do infants begin to protest the departure of their mother?

in the second part of the 1st year

When infants anticipate the departure of their mother by watching her behaviors?

11-12 months

When does the fear of strangers and stranger anxiety become prominent?

between 6 and 8 months..cling to parents and cry

What is the infant's first means of communication?


What is a biologic sign that conveys a message of urgency and signals displeasure?


How much do infants cry in the 1st 3 weeks?

1-1.5 hours and increases by 6 weeks

What is it thought that the increase in crying represent?

discharge of energy and maturational changes

When do infants make the throaty sounds?

5-6 weeks

When do infants make the single vowel sounds, such as ah and eh?

2 months

When do infants add consonants and begin to coo?

by 3 to 4 months

When do infants combine syllables, such as dada?

8 months

When do infants understand the meaning of no?

9-10 months

How many words should infants know by the age of 1?

3-5 words with meaning

When can the games of peek-a-boo and pat-a-cake are played?

6 months -1 year...involves sensorimotor skills

Infants need to played?


What type of play do infants engage in?


What influences the interaction that occurs between the child and parents?

infant's temperament or behavioral style

What do difficult children respond better to?

structured environments and routines

What do highly distractible children respond to?

may require additional soothing measures

What may highly active children require?

vigilant attention

What may slow to warm up child require?

gradual and preparation for new situations

What may the easy child require?

retraining because they develop new habits easily and parents may need reminders to feed or change

When do infants begin to warm up to strangers?

by the end of the 1st year

How should nurse approach infants?

talk softly, meet at eye level, maintain a safe distance, avoid sudden gestures, such as reaching for them

How can parents begin to separate from their infants?

talking to them as they leave the room, let them hear one's voice over the phone, use transitional objects

When does thumb sucking reach its peak?

18-20 months

What is the eruption of primary of deciduous teeth?


What is the formula for deciduous teeth?

age of child in months-6=number of teeth

What are some usual signs of teething?

drooling, swollen gums, increased finger sucking, difficulty sleeping, or biting on hard objects

What is the teething pain a result of?

inflammation, treat with cold soothing

What is the main reason for shoes?

protection during walking

What is a good shoe ?

1/2 thumb length between end of longest toe and shoe; roomy and square-toed socks; well-constructed athletic shoes or soft leather moccasins

What are signs that need to be larger?

curled toes when removed; redness or irritation of the skin on bottom of toes

What is the most desirable complete diet for the infant during the 1st 6 months?

human milk...or formula

What should all infants receive in the first 2 months of life?

vitamin D supplementation (200 IU)

What does vitamin D prevent?

rickets and vitamin D deficiency

If an infant is being exclusively breast fed, what should they receive after 4-6 months?

iron supplementation, use iron-fortified cereal

Do breast fed or bottle fed children require additional fluids?

no, can lead to water intoxification

How often should women pump to maintain supply?

every 3-4 hours

Can breast milk be microwaved?


When can infants receive cow's milk?

after 1 year

Are bottles recommended to be warmed in the microwave?

No because of uneven heating

What is the usual amount of ingested formula?

32 ounces

What can introducing foods before 6 months put an infant at risk for?

food allergies

Are fruit juices recommended before 6 months?


What should be the primary source of diet during the second 6 months?

human milk and formula

What supplementation should begin during the 2nd 6 months?


When does the extrusion reflex disappear?

during the 2nd 6 months

How should new foods be introduced?

one at a time

What can vitamin C in fruit juices enhance?

the absorption of iron...mix juice with cereal

What juice is safer for GI system and better absorbed?

white grape juice

What is the recommended amount of juice daily?

4-6 ounces a day

What finger foods can be introduced at 6 months?

crackers or zwieback

What type foods can be introduced at 8-9 months?

cheese, firmly cooked veggies, raw fruit

When are well-cooked table foods served?

1 year

When should infant cereals be discontinued?

18 months

When should spoon feeding be attempted?

after ingestion of some milk

When is it best to introduce new foods?

during the first year because they are more likely to eat them

How many days should be between the intro of new foods?

4-7 days

the process of giving up one method, for another?

weaning.....breast or bottle for a cup

How should weaning be done?

gradual by replacing one session at a time , nighttime should be the last discontinued

What is the total amount of sleep for infants?

15 hours

Who usually sleep for shorter periods of time?

breast fed babies

trouble either falling or staying asleep at night?


confusional arousals, sleep walking, sleep terrors, nightmares?

parasomnias (3-8 years)

involves letting the child cry for progressively longer times between brief parental interventions?

graduated extinction...increase intervals on successive nights

What is the 2 step approach of graduated extinction?

1. use GE during naps and @ bedtime
and if cried during night, use comforting measures
2. after partially trained, use GE at all times

What is the best way to prevent sleep problems?

establish bedtime rituals

How should teeth be cleaned in infants?

wipe with a damp cloth...water over toothpaste

When should infants see a dentist?

by 6 months of age

an essential mineral for building caries-resistant teeth?


How much fluoride should be used?

0.25 mg if intake is less than 0.3 ppm

What are the leading causes of injury?

falls, ingestion injuries, and burns

What are the 3 leading causes of death?

suffocation, car accidents, and drowning

What foods should be avoided to prevent aspiration?

hot dogs, candy, nuts, grapes, marshmallows, large amts of peanut butter

What baby product should be avoided because of fatal aspiration pneumonia?

baby powder

When is a mattress to small for a bed?

when 3 adult finger widths can be put between

What is the recommended length of strings for infants?

shorter than 12 inches

How long should infants face the rear?

birth to 20 pounds or 1 year

What should be done to prevent slouching?

place padding between the infant's legs and crotch

Should padding be placed behind infant's back of under buttocks?


When should direct sunlight be avoided?

first 6 months

When does the infant assume flexed position wit pelvis high, but knees not under abdomen when prone (gross motor)?

age 1 month

When can infant turn head from side to side when prone, and lifts head momentarily (gross motor)?

age 1 month

When does the infant assume less flexed position when prone (gross motor)?

age 2 months (hips flat, legs extended, arms flexed, head to side)

When is there almost no head lag when pulled to sitting position, balances head in sitting position, and rolls from back to side?

age 4 months

When does the rooting, tonic neck, and moro reflexes disappear?

age 4 months

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