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What is the often the rhythm of the heart rate in infants?
sinus arrhythmia (rate increases with inspiration and decrease with expiration)
What is a common blood change by in the first 2 to 3 months?
physiologic anemia (RBCs life is shortened)
When are infants able to old their bottle, grasp their feet and pull them to their mouths,and feed themselves a cracker?
at 6 months
When are infants able to move items from one hand to another, use one hand for grasping, and hold a cube in both hands?
What position is acceptable when an infant is awake and why?
enhances creeping, crawling, and turning over
Why should the head be placed on alternating sides before the infant is able to roll over?
to prevent positional plagiocephaly
What are the first perceptions that an infant has of their body?
kinesthetic and tactile and they realize they are distinct from their parents
What are the 2 components of cognitive development required for attachment?
the ability to discriminate the mother from others
and the achievement of object permanence
What is a psychologic and developmental problem that stems from maladaptive or absent attachment between infant and mother?
reactive attachment disorder
What are the 2 different patterns of RAD?
emotionally withdrawn inhibited pattern
When does infant become aware of the separateness of mother and child?
between 4-8 months, first progression through separation-individuation
When does the fear of strangers and stranger anxiety become prominent?
between 6 and 8 months..cling to parents and cry
What is it thought that the increase in crying represent?
discharge of energy and maturational changes
When can the games of peek-a-boo and pat-a-cake are played?
6 months -1 year...involves sensorimotor skills
What influences the interaction that occurs between the child and parents?
infant's temperament or behavioral style
What may the easy child require?
retraining because they develop new habits easily and parents may need reminders to feed or change
How should nurse approach infants?
talk softly, meet at eye level, maintain a safe distance, avoid sudden gestures, such as reaching for them
How can parents begin to separate from their infants?
talking to them as they leave the room, let them hear one's voice over the phone, use transitional objects
What are some usual signs of teething?
drooling, swollen gums, increased finger sucking, difficulty sleeping, or biting on hard objects
What is a good shoe ?
1/2 thumb length between end of longest toe and shoe; roomy and square-toed socks; well-constructed athletic shoes or soft leather moccasins
What are signs that need to be larger?
curled toes when removed; redness or irritation of the skin on bottom of toes
What is the most desirable complete diet for the infant during the 1st 6 months?
human milk...or formula
If an infant is being exclusively breast fed, what should they receive after 4-6 months?
iron supplementation, use iron-fortified cereal
Do breast fed or bottle fed children require additional fluids?
no, can lead to water intoxification
When is it best to introduce new foods?
during the first year because they are more likely to eat them
How should weaning be done?
gradual by replacing one session at a time , nighttime should be the last discontinued
involves letting the child cry for progressively longer times between brief parental interventions?
graduated extinction...increase intervals on successive nights
What is the 2 step approach of graduated extinction?
1. use GE during naps and @ bedtime
and if cried during night, use comforting measures
2. after partially trained, use GE at all times
What foods should be avoided to prevent aspiration?
hot dogs, candy, nuts, grapes, marshmallows, large amts of peanut butter
When does the infant assume flexed position wit pelvis high, but knees not under abdomen when prone (gross motor)?
age 1 month
When can infant turn head from side to side when prone, and lifts head momentarily (gross motor)?
age 1 month
When does the infant assume less flexed position when prone (gross motor)?
age 2 months (hips flat, legs extended, arms flexed, head to side)
When is there almost no head lag when pulled to sitting position, balances head in sitting position, and rolls from back to side?
age 4 months
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