NC Biology EOC Vocabulary
Terms in this set (119)
The study of organisms and their interactions within an environment
Any Living thing
The living world
A self supporting area composed of living AND nonliving things , made of abiotic and biotic factors
Nonliving parts of the environment
The living parts of the environment
Composed of all the populations of different organisms living together in a given area
A group of organisms who belong to the same species that live in a given area
Use the energy in sunlight and convert water and carbon dioxide into glucose, or food. Also known as PRODUCERS.
Organisms that do not make their own food. Also known as CONSUMERS.
Feed on the tissue of dead organisms
Eat ONLY plants
Eat ONLY meat
Eat BOTH plants and animals
Absorb any dead material and break it down into simple nutrients
Each step in the transfer of energy
The energy flow from one trophic level to the other, one organism at each trophic level.
When multiple food chains intertwine.
Shows the relationship between producers and consumers at different trophic levels in an ecosystem.
Limiting Factors (7)
The factors that limit the size of a population. Predation, Parasitism, Competition for Food, Pollution, Availability of Water, Disease, and Climate.
When the rate of growth in each generation is a multiple of the previous generation.
Growth Rate Factors
Births, Deaths, Immigrations, and Emigrations.
The number of organisms that can be supported by the environmental resources in an ecosystem. An S graph.
The same number of births each year equals the same number of deaths.
Competition, Predation, Parasitism, Symbiosis, and Commensalism.
Organisms try to make use of the same resource.
One organisms consumes another.
One benefits, other is harmed
Both organisms benefit
One organism benefits, the other is unaffected
Organic Compounds (4)
Have C-H bond. Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids. (Macromolecules)
Immediate energy storage
Polysaccharide in Cell walls
Polysaccharide used to store energy in plants.
Macromolecules that are insoluable in water.
Triglyeride- 3 Fatty Acids and 1 Glycerol
Long term energy storage, insulation, phospholipids in membrane
Specialized lipid found in the plasma membrane that is a main structural component
How amino acids are help together in a protein.
A specific group of proteins that speed up chemical reactions.
Nucleic Acids Function
Store and transmit hereditary or genetic information. DNA and RNA
Nucleic Acid Monomer
A 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
Process to make exact copy of DNA.
RNA # of Strands
DNA # of Strands
Inserting foreign DNA into host DNA to make Insulin, Interferon, and human growth hormone.
1. All living things are made up of cells
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function of living things
3. All cells come from preexisting cells.
Occurs during Interphase in Mitosis & Meiosis prior to the nucleus dividing
Have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Include protista, fungi, plant, and animal.
Lack a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Bacteria.
Command center of cell. Where DNA in the form of chromosomes is found.
site of protein synthesis in cells
Storage tank of cell.
Organelle that conducts cellular respiration and makes energy (ATP)
Organelle that conducts photosythesis.
Made of cellulose in plants, outer boundary of some cells. Provides support and structure.
The outer layer of boundary of animal cells. (Phospholipid Bilayer)
Muscle Cells Have A Lot Of..........
Cell Membrane Components
Phospholipids & Proteins
Diffusion. Does not require energy. Moves molecules from areas of high concentration to low.
Diffusion where carrier proteins help molecules across the cell membrane. Does not require energy.
Movement of substances that requires energy. Low to High concentration; Against the gradient
A type of diffusion involving the movement of water across a semi permeable membrane.
Used to identify crime suspects.
Used to determine people's fingerprint.
Human Genome Project
13 countries working together to sequence all the DNA of a human. Used to find genes responsible for certain diseases.
Reproduction of body cells.
Made of 2 identical parts called sister chromatids.
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, and Cytokinesis.
DNA is replicated during.....
# of Daughter Cells Formed in Mitosis
Mitosis Daughter Cells are....
Type of cell division which makes sex cells or gametes.
Types of Sex Cells
Sperm and Egg
# of divisions in Meiosis
For every chromosome your mother gave you there is a matching chromosome your father gave you.
Sex cells containing only one set of chromosomes. (23)
2 sets of chromosomes. (46)
Prophase 1. Increases diversity and genetic variation in Meiosis
Steps of Protein Synthesis
Transcription and Translation
The genetic code for building a protein is copied from DNA to mRNA.
mRNA travels to.......
A series of 3 bases on mRNA.
A series of 3 bases on tRNA.
The passing of characteristics from parent to offspring.
The study of heredity.
The father of genetics, studied pea plants.
All of the genes of a particular organism.
An inherited physical characteristic.
A section of DNA that codes for a trait, located on chromosome.
Versions of a gene.
The type of genes or alleles present in an organism's genome.
An organism's physical appearence.
2 Alleles of the same form make up the genotype. Pure bred.
2 Different alleles. Hybrid.
Form of gene that always shows, even if the other copy is recessive; capital letter
Form of gene only expressed in homozygous state,can be masked, lowercase letter
A blending of traits, alleles are neither dominant or recessive. Ex pink flowers.
Both alleles show equally, both alleles are dominant and contribute to phenotype. Ex Blood Type AB.
Ex. Blood type; more than 2 possible alleles in the gene pool.
Traits controlled by three or more genes. Can be on the same or different chromosomes. Ex Height.
Sex Linked Traits
Controlled by genes on the X chromosome
Occurs when chromosomes don't separate during meiosis
Trisomy 21. Non disjunction.
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.
mRNA and tRNA pair together to create a protein
brings correct amino acid to the ribosome to build a protein