Biology Chapter 6 Glencoe Science
Terms in this set (97)
are the building blocks of matter
neutrons and protons are located at the center of the atom
positively charged particle in an atom's nucleus
particle without a charge in an atom's nucleus
negatively charged particle that occupies space around an atom's nucleus
pue substance composed of only one type of atom; cannot be broken down into another substance by physical or chemical means
two or more atoms of the same element having different numbers of neutrons
pure substance with unique properties; formed when two or more different elements combine
type of chemical bond formed when atoms share electrons
compound whose atoms are held together by covalent bonds
atom that is negatively or positively charged because it has lost or gained one or more electrons
electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms
Van der Waals force
attractive forces between molecules
1. Sodium has 11 protons and 11 neutrons in its nucleus. Draw a sodium atom. Be sure to label the particles
2. Explain why carbon monoxide (CO) is or is not an atom
it is not only one atom, but multiple
3. Are all compounds molecules? Why or why not.
no because a molecule is a compound, but a compound is just two elements.
4. Compare van der Waals forces, ionic bonds, and covalent bonds
covalent bond is a chemical attraction, ionic is an electrical bond, and the van der Waals forces holds everything together.
5. Explain how the number of electrons in an energy level affects bond formation.
with more electrons there needs to be more neutrons
6. Beryllium has four protons in its nucleus. How many neutrons are in beryllium-9? Explain how you calculated your answer.
9 because the protons must be the same as the neurons
Basic knowledge of Chem
atoms,elements, and compounds
parts of an Atom: (sub-atomic particles) electrons -, protons +, neutrons are neutral
mass number- the number of protons + the number of neutrons
atomic number - the number of protons in an element
elements are constantly trying to have their outer shell to be filled and become stable.
first shell holds 2, and the next holds 8, the third rings has 8
Chapter 6 section 2
the process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are reorganized into different substance
substance that exists before a chemical reaction starts; located on the left side of the arrow in a chemical
substance formed by a chemical reaction; located on the right side of the arrow in a chemical equation
the minimum amount of energy required to reactants into products
substance that speeds up ...........
special proteins in living organisms that act as a biological catalyst/
reactant to which an enzyme binds
specific place where a substrate binds to an enzyme.
1. Identify the parts of this chemical reaction: A+B ->AB
energy is required
2. Diagram the energy changes that can take place in a chemical reaction.
...... / \
3. Explain why the number of atoms of reactants must equal the number of atoms of product formed.
because what goes in must come out
4. Describe the importance of enzymes to living organisms
they are needed to break down food
5. For the following chemical reaction, label the reactants and products, and then balance the chemical equation. ___H2O2 -> ___ H2O + ___O2
2H2O2 -> 2H2O + O2
6. Draw a diagram of a roller coaster and write a paragraph relating the ride to activation energy and a chemical reaction.
on a roller coaster, there only is one activation energy really needed, then when it goes down hill, then there is no energy needed.
it releases energy in the form of heats
it absorbs heat energy
Phases of matter
color, shape, texture, odor, taste ...
describe a substance ability to change into a new substance as a result of a chemical change
is the process by which atoms or groups of atomms are changed into different substance.
Water and solutions
a substance compound of two of more elements or compounds that are mixed but not not chemically combined.
a mixture in which one substance is dissolved into another
the substance that is dissolved
the substance that the solute is dissolved into
non-dissolved particles in a solution
Base and acid
if it has more hydrogen ions as compared to water is acidic, and if it has less hydrogen ions, it is more a base.
Chapter 6 section 3
1. Describe one way in which water helps maintain homeostasis in an organism.
hydrogen atoms are attracted to H2O
2. Relate the structure of water to its ability to act as a solvent.
water is a liquid, so it can dissolve things.
3. Draw a pH scale and label water, hydrochloric acid, and sodium hydroxide in their general areas on the scale.
hydrochloric acid..................................sodium hydroxide
4. Compare and contrast solutions and suspensions. Give examples of each.
solutions, is like crystal light. suspensions is when you put 4 more packets of the crystal light in the water than needed.
5. Explain how baking soda is basic. describe the effect of baking soda on H+ ion concentration of stomach contents with pH 4.
6. Predict if you add hydrochloric acid to water, what effect would this have on the H+ ion concentration? On the pH?
it is more acidic than basic, but closer to the center. the H+ would occur more often
The most abundant element in living things are
C, H, O, and N
Organisms are made of
Straight chains, branches, rings
a line of O in a big O, a line of O with O branching off, 5 O's with lines to make a pentagon.
Four groups of organic macromolecules found in living thing
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and Nucleic Acids
two or more monomers bonded together.
monomers linked by ...
the monomers of carbohydrates (glucose, lactose)
Chapter 4 section 4
Carbon led to ...
the discovery of life on earth
two monosaccharides joined together.
it serves as an energy source
a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide that is the main compound in the hard out shells of shrimp, lobsters and some insects as well as the cell walls of some fungi
Lipids is to
1. Explain if an unknown substance found on a meteorite is determined to contain no trace of carbon, can scientists conclude that there is life at the meteorite's origin?
no because all life has carbon
2. Compare the types of biological macromolecules and their functions.
Proteins- transport substances, speed reactions, provide structural support, make hormones
Lipids- store energy, provide barriers
3. Determine the components of carbohydrates and proteins.
4. Discuss the importance of amino acid order to a protein's function.
amino acids make up the proteins
5. Given the large number of proteins in the body, explain why the shape of an enzyme is important to its function.
the enzyme needs to be able to attach itself to others easily, and take up less space, so a branched, or ring molecule is the best one to have.
6. Draw two structures (one straight chain and one ring) of a carbohydrate with the chemical formula (CH2O)6