Abnormal Psychology: Chapter 1
Terms in this set (92)
is the scientific study of problematic emotions, cognitions, and behaviors associated with mental disorders. Psychologists who specialize in this field are also known as psychopathologists.
These are different from the norm (culturally), are maladaptive in that they interfere with a person's typical functioning, and cause the person personal distress and are bothered by his or her emotions, thoughts, or behaviors.
is the scientific study of mental disorders, including efforts to understand their genetic, biological, psychological, and social causes; effective classification schemes (nosology); course across all stages of development; manifestations; and treatment. The term may also refer to the manifestation of behaviors that indicate the presence of a mental disorder.
The field that studies frequencies and patterns of disorders in infants, children, and adolescents
is a measurement of all individuals affected by the disease at a particular time
is a measurement of the number of new individuals who contract a disease during a particular period of time.
the infrequency of certain emotions, cognitions, and/or behaviors
the beliefs and expectations of certain groups about what kinds of emotions, cognitions, and/or behaviors are undesirable or unacceptable
Frequencies and patterns of distribution of disorders in infants, children, and adolescents can be estimated with varied mythologies and within varied groups. These frequencies and patterns are the focus of the field of ________
barriers to care
such as allocation, perceptions, finances that prevent care
dimensional models of psychopathology
emphasize the ways in which typical feelings, thoughts, and behaviors gradually become more serious problems, when then may intensify and become clinically diagnosable disorders. There are NO sharp distinctions between adjustment and maladjustment
categorical models of psychopathology
emphasizes discrete and qualitative differences in individual patterns of emotions, cognition, and behavior, thought of as a check-list
propose that there is a genetic, structural, biological, or chemical basis for all psychological processes and events
a detailed wiring diagram of how neurons connect with one another via synapses in the brain
the capacity of neurons and neural networks in the brain to change their connections and behavior in response to new information, sensory stimulation, development, damage, or dysfunction. The older one gets, the more effort it takes to change the brain's ability to change in response to experience
observable characteristics of an individual
genetic makeup of an organism
the study of the joint effects of genes and environments; with respect to developmental psychopathology, the focus is on the relationship of genetic variation and psychological traits, symptoms, and disorders. This study asks "to what extent does our abilities, personality traits, disorders determined by genes inherited by our parents?"
the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change
children are in environments similar to their genetically related parents, genes and the environment work together
ex: musical parents exposing their talents and love for music to their child
active (niche seeking) correlation
children seek specific environments due to their genetic makeup
ex: athletically inclined children joining a team
genes impact the environment to support/reinforce their genes
ex: highly anxious children may be shielded from stressful situations
1) how much genetics contributes to some trait that an individual shows 2) proportion of trait variations between individuals in a given population due to genetic variation
emphasize the likelihood that many genes have small effects and attempts to account for the multiple types of genetic variations and processes that result in genetic burdens that influence the development of both mild and severe forms of disorders
diatheses (or predispositions) such as neurological damage at birth or genetic risk for disorder, in combination with additional stress (either physiological or environmental) lead to the emergence of a disorder
is a systemized study and theory of psychological forces that underlie human behavior, emphasizing the inter play between unconscious and conscious motivation and the functions
elimination of unnecessary connections
ex: iphone storage-you either use it or delete it for something else
a time when a particular type of developmental growth must occur for normal development
is used to help increase the probability that a specific behavior will occur with the delivery of a stimulus/item immediately after a response/behavior is exhibited
works by presenting a motivating item to the person after the desired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior more likely to happen in the future
a certain stimulus/item is removed after a particular behavior is exhibited. The likelihood of the particular behavior occurring again in the future is increased because of removing/avoiding the negative stimuli
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
presenting a negative consequence after an undesired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior less likely to happen in the future
a certain desired stimulus/item is removed after a particular undesired behavior is exhibited, resulting in the behavior happening less often in the future
is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by either reward or punishment
an organism "learns" through establishing associations between different events and stimuli
explains how both normal and abnormal behaviors are gradually acquired via processes of learning. Children are believed to be born with a blank slate
Persistent eating of non-edible/non-nutritive substances, not diagnosed until after age 2
Repeated regurgitation and re-chewing of food without medical cause for at least one month. Usually occurs in infancy. Usually treated behaviorally with family involvement
Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder
Failure to eat adequately-so that energy or nutrition needs are not met. Results in failure to gain or maintain weight. Before age six. The different ways is by having a limited appetite, fear of feeding, or picky eaters.
the focus is on the components and processes of the mind and mental development
emphases on the experiential development of children, the goal is to seek to promote well-being, thinking about happiness, hope, creativity, growth, and build resilience
propose that the best way to understand the personality and psychopathology of particular children is to understand the dynamics of their particular families
the aspects of family life and function that are shared by all children, what is not explained by genes, or nature, is usually thought to be explained by ______ _______ or nurture
the aspect of family life and function that are specific and distinct for each child
(Bronfenbrenner's) Ecological Theory
tries to explain how the inherent qualities of a child and his environment interact to influence how he will grow and develop. It also stresses the importance of studying a child in the context of multiple environments
the idea that abnormal behavior must be understood within the context of social and cultural forces, both cross cultures and within-cultures
emphasizes evolutionary contexts, experience-expectant learning (an example of a brain-behavior relation), and both qualitative and quantitative change across development
emphasizes that maladaptive patterns occur in the context of typical development and result in the current and potential impairment of infants, children, and adolescents
(or trajectories) illustrates the principle that adjustment and maladjustment are points or places along a lifelong map, emphasizes the ongoing possibility of change over time
is best understood as sets of differing circumstances that lead to the same diagnosis
is best understood as sets of similar beginnings that lead to different outcomes
reflects effective functioning in important environments which includes positive self-esteem, self-control, decision-making skills, morality, and social connections
_____ ______ increase vulnerability in two ways, 1) non-specific which involves increase vulnerability to any, or many, kinds of disorders, or 2) specific which involves increased vulnerability to ONE particular disorder
involves the collection of data at a single point in time, with comparisons made among groups of participants
involves the ongoing collection of data from the same group of participants, for the study of individuals over time
______ is found in understanding the relationship between outcomes and the variables that lead to stability or change
risk, risk factors
______ is defined as increased vulnerability to disorder, whereas ____ ______ are the individual, family, and social characteristics that are associated with this increased vulnerability
is defined as adaptation (or competence) despite adversity and protective factors are the individual, family, and social characteristics that are associated with this positive adaptation
the purpose of ____ ______ is to facilitate the application of basic research to clinical practice, and to inform research with findings and insights drawn from applied practice
is defined as a system for describing the important categories, groups, or dimensions of disorder, thought of as a scale/continuum
which is the method of assigning children to specific classification categories
DSM (Diagnositc and Statistical Manual)
an example of categorical classification which assumes that there are groups of individuals with relatively similar pattern of disorder
when two or more clincial psychologist, gathering information about one child's developmental history and current difficulties, come to the same same decision about the type of disorder
whether the classification gives us true-to-life, meaningful information, there are both internal and external
undercontrolled behaviors such as oppositional or aggressive behaviors that are often directed at others, it is a dimension because a child can have a varying degree of it
overcontrolled behaviors such as anxiety or social isolation that are often directed toward the self, it is a dimension because a child can have a varying degree of it
within categories or groups of disorders involves the ways in which children with the same disorder or diagnosis display individualistic sets of difficulties or symptoms, the DSM-5 description of any disorder usually includes a variety of domains and symptoms, allowing for countless combinations, ex: a variation of the duration, which settings upset the child, etc
across categories or groups of disorders involves the co=occurance of two or more disorders in one individual
involves the systematic collection of relevant information and is used to solve two kinds of practical problems 1) if it is clinical and 2) classifying and care, usually begins with interviews. Other methods include standardized tests, protective measures, physiological measures, and observations.
another example of measures of personality and clinical symptoms would include _____ ____ such as the Rorschach inkblots and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), a storytelling task
interventions that are implemented following the early signs of distress and dysfunction before the disorder is clearly established in the child
has to do with responding to already present and clinically significant disorders, meant to restore healthy functioning and minimizing future impairment
has to do with whether, at the end of treatment, children and adolescents have improved relative to their pretreatment status and compared to others who have not received treatment.
has to do with the specific mechanisms and common factors that account for therapeutic change
__________ traits are early-emerging basic dispositions in the domains of activity, affectivity, attention, and self-regulation, and these dispositions are the product of complex interactions among genetic, biological, and environmental factors across time.
involves the infant's excitability and responsiveness, negative _______ is associated with hyper-responsive amygdala activity. Neurotransmitter levels such as serotonin and dopamine levels also effect this.
involves what the infant does to control his or her reactivity
the hypothesis that some individuals are more susceptible than others to both negative (risk-promoting) and positive (development-enhancing) environmental conditions
a person to whom the infant can turn to for comfort and support
the infant skeeps closeness and resists separation
a person whose presence serves as a course of security from which a child ventures out to explore the world and to which he or she can reliable return
resistant (anxious/ambivalent) attatachment
is related to inconsistency or unpredictability, they are unsure and anxious about themselves. Not really comforted by mom. Negative view of self and positive view of others.
Avoidant attachment (anxious/avoidant) attachment
related to inadequate care, the child becomes distant/nonresponsive and will try to take care of themselves. They will look to persons other than their caregivers for play and comfort. Thoughts include, "I can take care of myself, but others can't help me"
signals a pattern of care in which the caregiver is perceived as frightening or malicious, might be because the young child had experienced long or repeated separations from caregiver. The caregiver is the source of comfort and anxiety.
Reactive attachment disorder
(RAD) involves an absence of attach- ment behaviors, failure to seek comfort when distressed, reduced social and emotional reciprocity, reduced positive emotion, increased negative emotion, and poor emotion regulation
disinhibited social engagement disorder
Children with (DSED), display a lack of wariness, an inappropriate approach to strangers, and a lack of physical and social boundaries. This atypical social behavior is noteworthy, given most children's caution around strangers and in unfamiliar settings
A model of abnormal behavior that emphasizes personal growth, free will, and responsibility. We have everything we need when we are born, we need help to go back to it.
1) disorders are categorical (i.e., reflecting clear distinctions between healthy and disordered adjustments); (2) disorders are associated with "constitutional dysfunction" (i.e., the idea that the child somehow fails to display his or her natural func- tion) and (3) disorders are endogenous (i.e., characteristic of the individual rather than an individual-environment transaction).
DSM is a key factor of this model.
attempts to determine which one of several diseases may be producing the symptoms
Ex: Is it autism or adhd? They are similar but key factors that are different
a story which reveals the reason why something is the way it is
problems initiating or maintaining sleep
Happens during sleep, something is interrupting sleep such as night terrors and sleep walking