Test 1 Forensic and legal Psychology
Terms in this set (79)
relies on scientific method
Law Adversarial process.
each other has an advocate who argues.
The theory is that if each side is fully represented the truth will emerge.
refers to courts. both civil and criminal, law enforcement agencies, correction, and administrative agencies.
a process of production and appling a body of a written rule governing society.
trained to analyze data objectively to discover. truth
refers to the accuracy of the results of a particular study
refers to flaws in design , allow uncontrolled and unplan factors to impact on the results
refers to the generalizability of the results to an external situation. Typically, external validity gets established through replication
limitation of experiments
They create an artificial situation in the real world.
conclusions can't formerly be stated until experiment is replicated
is a part experiment and part quasi-experiment, with two independent variables , one that is randomly assigned
Investigates the predictive relationship between two or more variables.
The statistical index of this relationship
A correlation of any number
sign tells us direction
Number tells us strength
sign = direction
positive correlation as the value of one variable increases the size of the other variable.
as the value of one variable increases, the size of the other variable decreases in some proportion
number = strength
A higher number indicates a stronger predictive relationship between two variables
Study jury decisions may use mock trials to simulate the jury process
study may be experimental quasi experimental, correlational , observational or neutral.
internal, external validity
Prominent in these studies
classification of law
classified based on content or origin
two or more parities seek reaslation of a dispute
an individual or party has violated social rules to the extent that needs punishment.
the rules of the legal system
defines the right and responsibility of members of society and the prohibited on their behavior.
laws originating with the US Constitution and state
develop essentially from individual case decisions, setting precedents.
laws originating in common practices or couscous of a society
rules drafted by legislature of a government.
rules created by other government agencies.
some cases first go to grand jury. Who will determine if there is enough evidence to proceed to trial if so they hand out indictments.
formal charging of the defendant who can then enter a plea of guilty not guilty or nolo contendere
may occur at any time involving an agreement for the defendant to plead guilty to certain charges and receive agreed-upon sentence.
similar agreement in civil court.
the process by which each side tries to gain vital info. about the case that will be presented by the other side. This includes (depositions) statements by witnesses, police records experts opinion and reports and any other info.
gives the right to incriminate themselves
Escobeda VS Illinois 1964
led to the stipulation that a suspect has right to have an attorney present during police interrogation.
Miranda VS Arizona (1966)
led to the need to notify suspect of their right to not have to answer quastions to have an attorney present and to have an attorney provided if they could not afford one.
exert control in subtle and obvious ways
interdiction, officers can use their control to create significant discomfort
officers indicate that they already know all the details .
Loss of control
certanty of guilt
Exculpatory Scenarios (offering face saving or obstesible justification for crime)
Admissibility of confession
Suspects confess to a crime they know they didn't commit to avoid further interrogation often believing they will later be cleared. or believe they will be punished anyway and that compliance is the best way to imitate the punishment.
Self incrimination to achieve some goal as a political aim or self promotion.
An innocent person who is confused tired and anxious comes to believe they commited the crime.
individuals confess to crimes with no actual involvement or influnance from law enforcnment, for example many high profile crimes lead to a slew of such confession.
a device designed to measure physiological changes that accompany emotion and stress, such respiration, electrodermal response, blood pressure and heart rate.
relevant, irrelevant tech (RF)
Subject is asking a series of irrelevant questions and then relevant ones to assess changes
Control of questions test (CQT)
A subject is asked irrelevant questions relevant questions and control question. Psychological responses higher for relevant than control questions are often seen as indicative of lying.
Guilty knowledge test
details and knowledge about the crime that has not been released to the public and thus can only be answered by someone who was at the scene
Brown VS Board of Education
Black and white segregated
Weakness of Polygraph
Emotional non reactivity.
may respond strongly to incriminating
may cause those being tested to respond inexpected ways.
Polygraphs lack of standardization
Research on Polygraphs
77% at catching quility suspects.
Exonerate 70% of innocent suspect.
Fail to catch 21% of guilty suspect.
Falsely accused 16% of innocent suspects.
Process of linking a piece of trace evidence to a possible criminal suspect.
includes physical evidence left at a crime scene or connection to a crime.
features common to a class or category
Features presumed to be unique to a single object.
made if they can be said to come from a common source.
is made if the sample are very similar with no unexplanable differences
is made if the analyses suggest substantial inconsistency between the sample stating that the subject
Consistence across time
Inter- rater reliability
consistency across examiners observers or judges
reliability within assessment instrument consistency of item
Standard error of measurement
the amount of varistion one can expect in a test score each time person takes a test
Finger print analysis
1892 Frances Galton proposed the use of fingerprint patterns as unique identifiers of an individual.
carries genetic instruction for living cells
If finding are not clear
a random match probability is estimated.
testifies as to infornmation they have seen or heard.
testifies as to a specialized area of knowledge to inform the court.
Frye standard - 1923
the general acceptance of scientific knowledge was established as the standard for admitting expert witness testimony into federal courts.
Daubert standards- 1993
relevancy pertinent to the case, legal sufficiency testimony must asst trier of fact in deciding issues of the case rather than being misleading or Prejudicial .
provides an unwanted altenative explanation for result.