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Language Development Chapter 1
Terms in this set (49)
What is language?
a complex and dynamic system of conventional symbols that is used in various modes for thought and communication
Language is a system of symbols
morphemes-smallest unit of language. "code" is the relationship between a word and its referent (arbitrary)
The system of language is conventional
members of a community/culture can share it. Users of language abides by accepted rules.
The Language system is dynamic
language is in a state of activity and change, both within an individual who is acquiring language within a community that users a certain language.
Language is a tool for human communication
language is the most distinctive feature that distinguishes humans from other animals.
What is communication?
communication is the process of sharing info, such as thoughts, feelings, and ideas among 2 or more ppl
What are the 3 purposes of communication?
1. rejecting. 2. request. 3. commenting
4 Basic processes
Formation, Transmission, Reception, Comprehension (dont forget feedback)
keeping thoughts and ideas to themselves
What is Modularity
a cognitive science theory about how the human mind is organized within the structures of the brain.
Domain specific modules
can process only very specific types of info, such as depth perception within the visual system.
Domain general modules
carry out general tasks like memory
What is speech?
Speech describes the neuromuscular process by which humans turn language into a sound signal and transmit it through air (or other medium) to receiver.
What is hearing?
the sensory system that allows speech to enter into and be processed by the brain.
Speech involves what 4 systems?
Respiration, phonation, resonance, and articulation
What makes up the model of speech production?
Perceptual target, motor schema. speech output, feedback
smallest unit of sound that can signal a difference in meaning
smallest unit of language capable of carrying meaning
What are the 4 sound fundamentals?
1. creation of sound source. 2. vibration of air particles. 3. reception by the ear. 4. comprehension by the brain
What is speech perception?
how the brain processes speech and language
What is auditory overshadowing?
when kids show a preference for auditory rather than visual information.
overlapping of phonemes in the production of strings of speech sounds.
COMMUNICATION involves 4 basic processes
formulation, transmission, reception, and comprehension.
symbolic communication (referential)
occurs when someone communicates about specific entity (object or event) and the relationship between the entity and its referent is arbitrary.
Pre intentional communication
other people assume the relationship between a communicative behavior and its referent.
A receiver can give feedback by
linguistic feedback, nonlinguistic feedback, paralinguistic feedback
What are the 7 purposes of communication?
1. Instrumental 2. regulatory 3. Interactional 4. Personal 5. Heuristic 6. Imaginative 7. Informative
used to ask for something
used to give directions and direct others
used to interact and converse socially
express a state of mind or feelings
find out information and inquire
used to tell stories and roll play
provide organized description of event
What are the major domains of language?
Form, content, use. Form= organization. Content= meaning. Use= shared content
3 components of form
1. Phonology 2. Morphology 3. Syntax
the rules of language governing the sounds that make syllables and words. Phonotactics, allophones.
the rules of language governing the internal organization of words. adds precision to language and expands vocab
the rules of language governing the internal organization of sentences. provides structure to sentences.
the rules of language governing the meaning of individual words and word combinations. Conceptual knowledge
the rules governing language use for social purposes.
Social communication includes
a. communication intentions. b. discourse organization. c. what, when, how to say it.
What are the 5 FEATURES of language>
1. Acquisition rate. 2. Universality. 3. Species Specificity. 4. Semanticity. 5. Productivity
Language differences includes:
Dialects, Bilingualism, Gender, Genetic Predisposition, Language Learning Environment
Language disorders include
Heritable Language Impairment, Developmental Disability, Brain Injury.
Heritable Language Impairment
exhibits depressed language abilities typically with no other impairment of intellect. Often called Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and affects 7-10% of children. Most common type.
language development is considered a secondary disorder to a primary cause to intellectual disabilities. ex: down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, social communication disorder
damage or injury to the mechanisms of the brain involved with language functions. Can occur in utero, perinatally, and after birth.
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