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isotope that is unstable; nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off detectable partices and energy
emergy that matter possesses as a result of its location or spatial arrangement (structure)
The electrons in the outermost shell (main energy level) of an atom; these are the electrons involved in forming bonds.
The outermost energy shell of an atom, containing the valence electrons involved in the chemical reactions of that atom.
an attraction between two atoms resulting from the sharing of outer-shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges
A type of molecular notation in which the constituent atoms are joined by lines representing covalent bonds.
a type of molecular notation representing the quantity of constituent atoms, but not the nature of the bonds that join them.
the bonding capacity of a given atom; usually equals the number of unpaired electrons required to complete the atom's outermost (valence) shell.
nonpolar covalent bond
A type of covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity.
polar covalent bond
A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.
A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule.
van der Waals interactions
Weak attractions between molecules or parts of molecules that are brought about by localized charge fluctuations.
in a chemical reaction, the state in which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction, so that the relative concentrations of the reactants and products do not change with time.
The making and breaking of chemical bonds, leading to changes in the composition of matter.
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