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MGS Final Exam Study Guide
Terms in this set (78)
The Allied Powers
The Allied powers were the opposing force against the Axis powers in WWII. The largest countries in the Allied Powers were Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the US
To appease someone is to satisfy their needs, usually in a small way as to keep them happy. An example of this was the Policy of Appeasement in WWII, which attempted at avoiding war by appeasing Hitler and allowing him to expand Germany. This plan however failed because Hitler was not completely satisfied.
The Anschluss refers to the annexation of Austria into Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1938. This was done by voting however it was highly implied that there was some bias and meddling in the poles by the Germans.
The Axis powers were made up of primarily Germany, Italy, and Japan. They were the powers fighting against the Allied powers in WWII and were ultimately defeated in WWII.
Capitalism is an economic system that promotes private ownership and that allows the market conditions to determine how goods are produced and how wealth is distributed. The most important aspect to this is a free market that allows people to buy what they need.
Collective Security is a system by which states have attempted to stop wars using a Collective Security agreement. Some examples of this are the United Nations and the League of Nations.
Containment is a geopolitical strategy to stop the expansion of an enemy. It is best known as a Cold War foreign policy of the United States and its allies to prevent the spread of communism.
A belief that the government should be run in a way in which all people who make up it are payed and treated equally.
The protection of a computer system from theft, damage to their hardware, software or information, as well as from invasion and exposing important information.
The highest governing body and the supreme deliberative body of the United Nations.
Genocide is the act or intention of getting rid of an entire group of people or parts of a specific group of people.
A soviet government policy that was established in the 80s and allows the government to openly discuss political and social issues.
The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991
Referred to as the Night of Broken Glass was the night that thousands of Jewish stores and homes were destroyed or damaged by Nazi supporters in Nazi Germany.
The Marshall plan was a plan to help heal the broken economy after WWII. In the plan the US would act as a friend, donating their plentiful resources to European countries as a way to help then recover from World War II. In return the US succeeded at halting the spread of communism and increasing their exports. The plan overall kept the global economy up and running, which helped keep Europe from falling back into the same situation in the interwar period that allowed for the rise of Nazi Germany.
A book written by Hitler while he was imprisoned, describing all of his plans for Germany and the second WW.
The Nuremberg Laws were antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany. They were introduced on 15 September 1935 by the Reichstag at a special meeting convened at the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party.
A partition is the separation of two things, usually when referring to land-masses and boundaries. The most famous occurrence of a Partition was the Partition of India during the Cold War into India and Pakistan.
Perestroika was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost policy reform
Information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view.
The making of amends for a wrong one has done, by paying money to or otherwise helping those who have been wronged. A famous occurrence of this would be the war reparations that Germany had to pay after the first World War.
The ability of people to have their own determination by the people of a territorial unit of their own future political status.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union and the United States, for dominance in spaceflight capability.
A system of government that is centralized and dictatorial and requires complete subservience to the state. Examples of this are Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini.
The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy whose stated purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War. It was first announced to Congress by President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947.
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce
He was the leader of the Nazi party in Germany and pulled Germany out of the economic depression after world war I. He went to prison and wrote the book Mein Kampf early in his life. He was responsible for the mass killings of jewish people during wartime.
A terrorist group that was stationed in Afghanistan and was responsible for 911. Their leader was Osama bin Laden.
He was the leader of Italy during the time of WWII. He set an example for people like Hitler and was largely responsible for the Fascist government that grew in popularity during WWII.
He was an advocate for peace during the time of the partition of india. He was a prominent leader in the detachment of India from British rule. He was educated in England but came back to India later i life. He was a Hindu and wanted india to remain one state.
Harry S. Truman
He was the president of the united states during the time that the second world war ended and the beginning of the Cold War. He is known for his establishment of NATO and the Truman Doctrine (a document with the purpose of countering the USSR) and putting the Marshall Plan into action.
The hindus were the majority during the time of the Partition of India. They were lead by Nehru. For the most part they wanted India to remain one.
The Hutus were the majority of the population during the Rwandan Genocide and the radicalist Hutus were the ones responsible for the genocide.
In the Israeli-palestinian the israelis are allied with the United States. They want to have jerusalem as the capital.
The Islamic State in Iraq and Seria is a terrorist group that was formed out of the remnants of al Qaeda when the US left Afghanistan. They began to gain in power, however, when the Syrian civil war began and allowed for ISIS to focus on recruitment of people who were against the government.
Joseph Stalin was a Russian leader during the time of the second world war and the beginning of the cold war. He was known for having a rough upbringing that made for his tough demeanor and leadership. He was known for his unique way of thinking known as stalinism that built the Soviet Union into a new era of being a political superpower.
He was the British leader of india during the Indian independence from britain and oversaw the negotiations on what would happen to India.
He was the president of the Soviet Union for a portion of time towards the end of the Cold War. He encouraged democratic values and government that lead to the fall of the Soviet Union and communism.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
He was the muslim leader in congress during the time of the partition of india.
The muslims were the minority in India and were represented in congress by Jinnah. After the partition the Muslims were sent to Pakistan.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization was a program that was made by president Truman and the United States. It was an agreement that allied a group of powerful nations to stop communism and exists today to deal with important global matters.
The former prime minister of Britain. He is best known as being responsible for the Policy of Appeasement to Hitler immediately following the first world war.
He was in charge of the partition of India and wanted to keep india together. He represented the Hindus in congress.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party, commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and practised the ideology of Nazism
Osama bin Laden
The founder of al-Qaeda, the organization that was responsible for the September 11 attacks on the United States. He died May 2, 2011.
The Palestinians in the israeli palestine conflict occupy parts of the Gaza strip and the west bank. Palestine was the original country before the creation of Israel.
He was a secularist who rose through the Baath political party in Iraq to assume a dictatorial presidency. Under his rule, segments of the population enjoyed the benefits of oil wealth, while those in opposition faced torture and execution. After military conflicts with U.S.-led armed forces, Hussein was captured in 2003. He was later executed.
The religious minority in India. A religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions
The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, they are a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war within that country. Upheld strict religious law during the time that they were in power.
They were the victims in the Rwandan Genocide and 800,000 of them were killed during it.
The United nations is an organization the aims to protect against world conflict and deal with world peace.
The Warsaw Pact, a mutual defense organization that put the Soviets in command of the armed forces of the member states, was signed in Warsaw, included the Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria as members. The treaty called on the member states to come to the defense of any member attacked by an outside force and it set up a unified military command under Marshal Ivan S. Konev of the Soviet Union.
Sir Winston Churchill was a British writer, military leader and statesman. Twice named prime minister of the United Kingdom, he forged alliances with the United States and Soviet Union to defeat Nazi Germany in World War II.
A Principal Chinese Marxist theorist, soldier, and statesman who led his country's communist revolution. He was the leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), and he was chairman (chief of state) of the People's Republic of China
Sunni and Shia Muslims
Sunnis: The majority and make up 80% of Muslims, backed Abu Bakr, a friend of the Prophet Muhammad after his death, and father of his wife.
Shias: Wanted to stick to blood after the dead of the Prophet and followed his cousin and son-in-law.
The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective allies during the Cold War.
The Balfour Declaration was a public statement issued by the British government during World War I announcing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine.
In June 1948, the Russians-who wanted Berlin all for themselves-closed all highways, railroads and canals from western-occupied Germany into western-occupied Berlin. This, they believed, would make it impossible for the people who lived there to get food or any other supplies and would eventually drive Britain, France and the U.S. out of the city for good. Instead of retreating from West Berlin, however, the U.S. and its allies decided to supply their sectors of the city from the air. This effort, known as the "Berlin Airlift," lasted for more than a year and carried more than 2.3 million tons of cargo into West Berlin.
Bombing of Guernica
The bombing of Guernica was an aerial bombing of the Basque town of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War by the Germans and was said to be a way for the Germans to see just how powerful their bombers would be in the impending world war II
The Great Calcutta Killings was a day of widespread riot and manslaughter between Hindus and Muslims in the city of Calcutta in the Bengal province of British India
Aka the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II. Took place on the beaches in Normandy.
Five Year Plan
A Method of planning economic growth over limited periods, through the use of quotas, used first in the Soviet Union and later in other socialist states.
Hiroshima: August 6th. It was organised by president truman and was the second largest city in Japa and important military base. It killed 150,00 people.
Nagasaki: August 9th. The first 3/4 of a mile were disinegrated or killed by fire. People around the city were either boiled by water or faced complications due to the radiation.
A genocide during World War II in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews
The partition was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, as the British government there was called. The two self-governing countries of Pakistan and India legally came into existence at midnight on 14-15 August 1947.
Invasion of Iraq
The 2003 invasion of Iraq lasted signalled the start of the Iraq War. President Bush and his advisors built much of their case for war on the idea that Iraq, under dictator Saddam Hussein, possessed or was in the process of building weapons of mass destruction
Japanese Invasion of Manchuria
After victories in the Sino-Japanese war and the Russo-Japanese war Japan had a stock market crash due to the US taxing them. China had been torn apart by war and was in not place to resist and Manchuria had more coal and raw materials. Eventually the League of Nations force Japan to leave after China complains.
Six months after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States defeated Japan in one of the most decisive naval battles of World War II. Thanks in part to major advances in code breaking, the United States was able to preempt and counter Japan's planned ambush of its few remaining aircraft carriers, inflicting permanent damage on the Japanese Navy. An important turning point in the Pacific campaign, the victory allowed the United States and its allies to move into an offensive position.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
The September 11 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure. 2 Planes hit the twin towers, 1 hit the pentagon, and one missed.
1932 Election in Germany
Following the premature dissolution of the Reichstag. They saw great gains by the Nazi Party, which for the first time became the largest party in parliament but without winning a majority
An attack on the naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii that lead to the US entering WWII.
The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi, was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority government. Nearly 800,000 people, mostly tutsis were killed.
Spanish Civil War
A Military revolt against the Republican government of Spain, supported by conservative elements within the country. When an initial military coup failed to win control of the entire country, a bloody civil war ensued, fought with great ferocity on both sides. The Nationalists, as the rebels were called, received aid from Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany.
1929 Crash and Great Depression
The stock market crash of 1929 was not the sole cause of the Great Depression, but it did act to accelerate the global economic collapse of which it was also a symptom. By 1933, nearly half of America's banks had failed, and unemployment was approaching 15 million people, or 30 percent of the workforce.
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. The Treaty had harsh consequences against Germany that caused them to go into an economic crisis and eventually lead way to the rise of the Nazi party.
Cuban Missile Crisis
During the Cuban Missile Crisis, leaders of the U.S. and the Soviet Union engaged in a tense, 13-day political and military standoff in October 1962 over the installation of nuclear-armed Soviet missiles on Cuba, just 90 miles from U.S. shores.
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