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social psych exam 1
Terms in this set (70)
the scientific study of how individuals think, feel, and behave in a social context. how real/imaginative people affect our feelings, thoughts, or behaviors. how we think and make decisions about/because of other people.
resolution of the mind into structural elements. materials of conscious experiment, reductionist, Wilhelm Wundt's lab work.
functions must be explained along with the materials of consciousness experience. adaptive behavior (Darwin). William James; principles of psychology.
study mental processes such as thinking, learning, remembering, and reasoning.
seeks to understand the stable differences between individuals, whereas social psychology seeks to understand how social factors affect most individuals regardless of their different personalities.
scientific study of changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life.
level of analysis with larger social forces: cultures, governments, and institutions
level of analysis with smaller collectives and social groups: race, ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic groups, communities, families.
level of analysis involving individuals and dyads (2 people)
goals of science and research methodologies
description, discover relationships, prediction, explain and understand, control.
naturalistic observation, correlational studies, and experimental studies
basic research process
formulate a specific research question
experiment, observe, and measure behavior
draw conclusions - confirm or disconfirm hypothesis
choose a population to study, sample from that population (random sampling), assign sample to control and experimental groups (random assignment), manipulate the independent variable, measure the dependent variable.
correlations measure 2 dependent variables
experiments: when we change the independent variable, does the dependent variable change as well?
idea/abstract notion: prejudice, love, conformity
turning of the conceptual variable into something can be measured in a study.
treatment. presence of the independent variable. may have multiple experimental conditions. usually the same as the independent variable
lack of treatment. absence of the independent variable. hold everything constant except for the independent variable
everything is held constant between conditions except for the independent variable. cause and effect can be demonstrated. lab research
experiment directly translate to "real life" and results can be generalized outside the lab.
research setting resembles "real life" situation. if research procedures are more realistic, research findings are more likely to reveal what is really going on.
does the participant get "drawn into" the experiment regardless of resemblance to real life? if the experimental situation is compelling and real to the participants while they are participating in the study, their behavior in the lab will be as natural and spontaneous as their behavior in the real world.
- if the experiment demonstrates cause and effect, it has a high internal validity. if not, it has low internal validity.
- if the results can be generalized to other populations, places, or times, it has a high external validity. if not, it has high internal validity and low external validity.
two dependent variables whose values vary systematically.
*correlation indicates association, but not cause.
values of variables vary together. (both variables high or low; IQ and GPA)
values of variables vary in opposite directions (one higher/one lower; TV watching and grades)
ethics in social psychology
- Institutional Review Board (IRB) evaluates research.
- Participants must be aware of the possible risks and consequences of the research.
- Experimenter must obtain informed consent.
- Experimenter has to provide debriefing and follow up care if necessary.
lying to participants.
- participants want to please the experimenter.
- knowledge of what is being actually studied may bias participant behavior.
- so we may need to deceive patients about what we are actually studying.
- self-report measures
- behavioral observation
research assistant and are part of the experiment. behavior is controlled and the confederate influences participant behavior.
APA code of conduct
set of principles that keep everyone working on the same page ethically.
What distinguishes social psychology from other specialties in psychology is its
attention to the influence of situational context on behavior.
Antoine investigates the extent to which depressed individuals have difficulty forming accurate memories of social interactions, particularly when those interactions are stressful. His research is best described as being at the intersection of
social, clinical, and cognitive psychology.
Social psychology differs from history and philosophy in its
attention to the scientific method.
Of the following important figures in the history of social psychology, who most explicitly emphasized application of the field to social problems in society?
Social psychologists reacted to critiques of the field in the 1960s and 1970s by doing all of the following except
denouncing experiments as unacceptably artificial.
Which of the following is an example of a topic a social cognition researcher might study?
The impact of negative versus positive
The role of natural selection processes in the development of social behavior is a concern in
Jessica and Nick are behavioral researchers. Jessica believes that her sons have been aggressive from birth because she and her husband Nick have inborn aggressive tendencies. Nick, however, believes that their sons are aggressive because throughout history it has been adaptive for men to be aggressive so that they can protect their territory and possessions. Nick's beliefs reflect the influence of _____, whereas Jessica's beliefs reflect _____.
evolutionary psychology; behavioral genetics
The interaction between individual characteristics and situational constraints on the way people behave best reflects the intersection of
personality and social psychology.
Pettit and Sivanathan (2011) found that if people experienced threat to self-esteem, they were more likely to make a status-driven purchase with credit. This sort of study is part of the newly emerging field of
Which of the following best illustrates Lewin's interactionist perspective?
Rikki is usually shy, but at work she appears to be quite outgoing.
Which historical event sparked great interest in and gave shape to the field of social psychology?
The Nazi Holocaust during World War II
Which of the following is true regarding social psychology and clinical psychology?
Researchers in both fields might conduct studies investigating outcomes such as anxiety or depression.
Which of the following statements concerning social psychology and sociology is false?
Sociologists are more likely than social psychologists to rely on experimentation to study human behavior. Correct
Social psychological research is a necessary endeavor because our commonsense intuitions
often contradict each other
Which of the following is a central part of the definition of social psychology?
It assumes that thoughts and behaviors are influenced by other people.
By stressing both internal differences among individuals and differences among external situations, the interactionist perspective is an approach combining
personality psychology with social psychology.
Mariano is interested in how the diversity of a group affects its performance. If Mariano is a social psychologist, it is unlikely that he will
focus more on the details of recent Supreme Court rulings regarding affirmative action than examining the actual behavior of groups.
Which of the following was not a criticism of laboratory experimentation in the 1960s and 1970s?
Experiments did not allow researchers to draw conclusions about the causal relationship between variables.
To examine the impact of mood on prosocial behavior, Leila had participants watch a video intended to put them in either a positive or neutral mood before asking them to make a donation to a fictitious charity. Which of the following is the operational dependent variable in this study?
Donation to charity
All else being equal, social psychologists prefer a(n) ________ theory to a(n) _______ theory.
To examine potential gender differences in the qualities individuals seek in their romantic partners, HaeJin compares the personal ads placed by men and women. HaeJin is conducting a(n)
Which of the following studies was controversial enough to spark discussion of the ethics of research, and ultimately resulted in the creation of IRBs to protect participant rights?
Milgram's (1963) studies of obedience to an authority telling participants to deliver electrical shocks to a confederate
Luke would like to know if there is a relationship between the number of psychology courses people take and their level of empathy. He surveys a randomly selected group of college students. Each student indicates the number of psychology courses he or she has taken and then completes an empathy scale. Luke's research is best described as a(n)
For which of the following questions would a researcher be most likely to use an observational study?
Do banks tend to offer minorities lower interest rates on home mortgages than non-minorities?
One major difference between research in social psychology versus research in other fields such as chemistry is that
many people have commonsense intuitions about the questions that social psychologists study empirically.
All social psychological research must begin with a(n)
Which of the following is not a suggestion your textbook makes for how social psychology could protect itself against intentional or unintentional bias or dishonesty?
Having tenure and promotion less
Social psychologists use electronic databases, such as PsycInfo to
find published research on a particular topic.
Researchers have developed interval-contingent, signal-contingent, and event-contingent report methods to
reduce memory distortions in self-report measures.
Joel argues that the use of confederates provides for real interactions that emulate the types of reactions that occur in real life. Dale argues that the use of confederates simply makes an experiment more involving for the participant. Which of the following is true?
a. Joel believes that confederates increase mundane realism; Dale believes that confederates increase experimental realism.
What is one general difference between descriptive and correlational research methods?
d. Descriptive research does not look at relationships between variables
research whose goal is to increase the understanding of human behavior, often by testing hypotheses based on a theory
research whose goals are to enlarge the understanding of naturally occurring events and to find solutions to practical problems
the extent to which the manipulations in an experiment really manipulate the variables they were designed to manipulate and the measures used in the study really measure the variables they were designed to measure
bogus pipeline technique
procedure in which research participants are falsely led to believe that their responses will be verified by an infallible lie detector
involves examining record of past events and behaviors. benefit = researchers can be sure that they did not influence the behavior by their presence.
a factor other than the independent variable that varies between the conditions of an experiment, thereby calling into question what caused any effects on the dependent variable
set of statistical procedures used to review a body of evidence by combining the results of individual studies to measure the overall reliability and strength of particular effects
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