Voluntary consent given by a subject-Le., person or a responsible proxy (e.g., a parent)- for participation in a study, immunization program, treatment regimen, etc ., after being informed of the purpose, methods, procedures, benefits and risks, and, when relevant, the degree of uncertainty about outcome. - Routine analyses of vital statistics( births, deaths), communicable disease reports, other notifiable events( outbreaks, induced abortions)
- Periodic surveys of health status, knowledge, belief, attitudes, practices, behavior, environmental exposures, and health care encounters (e.g. CDC)
- Specialized surveys to establish prevalence of a condition, a characteristic or use of a medical procedure
- Studies comparing information to look for differences and patterns. For example across migrants and persons in their country of origin.