The rise of Andrew Jackson, the first president from beyond the Appalachian Mountains, exemplified the inexorable westward march of the American people. As Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote in 1844,"Europe stretches to the Alleghenies; America lies beyond." By 1840, the "demographic center" of the American population map had crossed the Alleghenies. By the eve of the Civil War, it had marched across the Ohio River. Life was grim for the pioneer families were poorly fed, ill-clad, and housed hastily erected shanties. They were prone to disease, depression, and premature death. Breakdowns and madness were all to frequently the "opportunities" for secluded pioneer women. Pioneering Americans were often ill-informed, superstitious, provincial, and fiercely individualistic. Pioneers in a hurry often exhausted the land in the tobacco regions and then pushed on, leaving behind barren and rain-gutted fields. They discovered that if they burned cane fields, European blue grass grew well. "Kentucky bluegrass," as it was inaccurately called, made ideal pasture for livestock - and lured thousands more American homesteaders to Kentucky. During the 1840s and 1850s over a million and a half ___ immigrants, and nearly as many Germans, swarmed to America. They came partly because Europe seemed to be running out of room. The population of the Old World had more than doubled in the 19th century, and Europe began to generate a seething pool of apparently "surplus" people. America beckoned most strongly to the struggling masses of Europe, and the majority of migrants headed for the "land of freedom and opportunities." Also, a terrible rot attacked the potato crop, on which the people had become dangerously dependent (about 2 million people died). The people fled the Land of Famine for the Land of Plenty, flocked to America in the "Black Forties." They were too poor to move west and buy the necessary land, livestock, and equipment, so the swarmed into the larger seaboard cities (Boston and NY mostly). Forced to live in squalor, they were rudely crammed into the already-vile slums. Scorned by older American people, especially Protestant Bostonians. They did the hard, "back-breaking" labor. The Irish were hated by native workers. "No Irish Need Apply" (NINA) was a sign commonly posted at factory gates. ADD? Frustrated in his earlier attempts to monopolized the cotton gin, Whitney turned to the mass production of muskets for the U.S. Army. Up to this time, each part of a firearm had been hand-tooled, and if the trigger of one broke, the trigger of another might not fit. Whitney seized upon the idea of having machines make each part, so that all triggers, for example, would be as much alike as the successive imprints of a copperplate engraving. The principle of ____ was widely adopted by 1850, and it ultimately became the basis of modern mass-production, assembly line methods. By perfecting the cotton gin, Whitney gave slavery a new lease on life, and perhaps made the Civil War more likely. At the same time, by popularizing the principle of ____, Whitney helped factories to flourish in the North, giving the Union a decided advantage when the showdown came. Clearly the early factory system did not shower its benefits evenly on all. While many owners grew plump, working-people often wasted away at their workbenches. Hours were long, wages were low, and meals were skimpy and hastily gulped. Workers were forced to toil in unsanitary buildings that were poorly ventilated, lighted, and heated. They were forbidden by law to form labor unions to raise wages, for such cooperative activity regarded as criminal conspiracy. In 1820 a significant portion of the nation's industrial toilers were children under ten years of age. Victims of factory labor, many children were mentally blighted, emotionally starved, physically stunted, and even brutally whipped. Dozens of strikes erupted in the 1830s and 1840s, most of them for higher wages, some for the ten-hour day, and a few for unusual goals as the right to smoke on the job. The workers usually lost more strikes than they won, for the employer could resort to such tactics as the importing of strikebreakers. It was fast, reliable, cheaper than canals to construct, and not frozen over winter. Able to go anywhere, even through the Allegheny barrier, it defied terrain and weather. The first ___ appeared in the US in 1828. By 1860, the US boasted thirty thousand miles of track, three-fourths of it in the rapidly industrializing North. Railroad pioneers had to overcome obstacles like feeble brakes, conjectural arrivals and departures, and numerous differences in gauge meant frequent changes of trains for passengers. But gauges gradually became standardized, better brakes did brake, safety devices were adopted, and the _____ (has bunk beds so you can lay down) was introduced in 1859.