32 terms

Ch22: Microbial Diseases of the Nervous System

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meningitis
inflammation of the meninges
encephalitis
Inflammation of the brain
myelitis
inflammation of the spinal cord
Hemophilus influenzae
gram- bacillus responsible for 5% of all bacterial meningitis cases
Streptococcus pneumoniae
a gram positive cocci responsible for 40% of all bacterial meningitis cases
Neisseria meningitidis
gram- bacterium responsible for 30% of all bacterial meningitis cases
meningitis (2 and older)
Sign & Symptoms: respiratory illness, sore throat, severe headache, fever, stiff neck, possible non-blanching rash, lethargy, confusion, photophobia, possible shock or seizures, death
nuchal cord rigidity
stiff neck reaction to inflammation and irritation of spinal meninges
Brudzinskis Sign
Demonstrable sign of meningitis where severe neck stiffness causes a patient's hips and knees to flex when the neck is flexed.
Kernigs Sign
Demonstrable sign of meningitis flexing the patient's hip 90 degrees then extending the patient's knee causes pain.
photophobia
sensitivity to light in meningitis due to optic nerve inflammation
meningitis (2 and under)
Sign & Symptoms: fever, rash, bulging fontanelles, opisthotonus, poor feeding, irritability or inactivity, seizure, coma, death
opisthotonus
involves muscle spasms that cause an arching of the neck and back
spinal tap
Procedure used to diagnose meningitis, during which a large needle is inserted between L2-L4 to aspirate the CSF. Cloudy=infection
Neisseria meningitidis
Meningococcal meningitis is caused by ______.
IgA protease and Lipid A endotoxins
What 2 factors increase the virulence of Neisseria meningitidis?
IgA protease
destroy IgA antibodies found on mucosal surfaces
Neisseria meningitidis
The leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults is _________.
Neisseria meningitidis
meningitis (with skin rash, purple petechiae or purpura); gram - diplococci; spreads by aerosol droplets in crowded conditions, and can also present as septicemia
septisemic meningitis
Type of meningitis where endotoxin spreads throughout blood and lymph causing endotoxic shock, petechial rash (doesn't fade when pressed), edema, tachycardia, gangrene
aseptic meningitis
meningitis having a viral cause and most benign; has best outcome, mild symptoms, and shortest in duration
aseptic meningitis
meningitis w/ negative CSF Gram stain & bacterial culture
poliovirus
poliomyelitis is caused by ______
poliomyelitis
transmitted thru fecal-oral route and causes destruction of spinal neurons
poliomyelitis
destruction of the ventral horn motor neurons by the poliovirus, muscles atrophy, death may occur due to paralysis, survivors often develop postpolio syndrome
peripheral
Polio does not infect the _____ nerves and muscles.
rabies
an acute viral infection that is most commonly transmitted to humans by the bite or saliva of an infected animal
rabies
Decreased ability to swallow causes drooling or aspiration, fatal in all cases if left untreated, hydrophobia, fatal encephalitis
fatal encephalitis
If rabies is left untreated it almost always results in___
prodromal phase
Phase of rabies when symptoms are flu-like, possible nervousness, partial paralysis near the bite site, and periods of aggression and calm
excitation phase
Phase of rabies when there is an onset of loss of muscle control, painful mouth spasms, hydrophobia, excessive salivation, impaired speech and vision, and person remains awake and alert.
paralytic phase
Final phase of rabies where consciousness fades in and out, and extensive neuron damage leads to fatal encephalitis and/or death due to inability to breath.