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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Chapter 10 Study Guide
Terms in this set (40)
An official count of a country's population that is completed every 10 years.
A machine that separates cotton seeds from cotton fibers.
Roads made of logs split in half which were used in muddy areas. They were called this because they looked like the ridges of corduroy cloth.
The transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation. New machines and new technology helped with this concept.
Money used for investment.
Uniform pieces that can be made in large quantities to replace other identical pieces.
An artificial waterway.
Privately built roads that charge a fee to the travelers who used them
Loyalty to one's own region.
Removal of weapons.
A document that gives an inventor the sole legal right to an invention for a period of time.
System bringing manufacturing steps together in one place to increase efficiency.
The freedom of private businesses to operate competitively for profit with minimal government regulations.
Who: started by Henry Clay
What: Policies used to stimulate the growth of industry. It included support for a national bank (to control inflation and lend money to build developing industries), protective tariffs, and internal improvements (building of canals and roads)
Why: Emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
Convention of 1818
Who: Started by President Monroe and John Quincy Adams
What:Created a secure and demilitarized border. Americans also gained the right to settle in the Oregon Country
Why: Set the border between the U.S. and Canada at the 49th parallel (or latitude)
Who: Created by John Quincy Adams and Luis de Onís.
What: An agreement in which Spain gave control of the territory of East Florida to the United States and abandoned all claims to West Florida. In return , the United States gave up its claims to Spanish Texas and took over responsibility for paying $5 million that American citizens claimed Spain owed them for damages.
Why: Keep peace between Spain and the United States
Who: Started by President Monroe and John Quincy Adams
What: an agreement
Why: limited naval power on the Great lakes for both the United States and British Canada
When: Dec. 2, 1823
Who: President James Monroe
What: A statement
Why: Declared the United States would not interfere with any existing European colonies in the Americas, and it would oppose any new ones. Europe would not be allowed to colonize any more in the United States.
Who: Henry Clay
What: A compromise
Why: Kept the balance between the number of free states and slave states. It allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, and prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30'N parallel within the Louisiana Territory.
Why: Benefit the community in which they are being created.
Tariff of 1816
Who: supported by Daniel Webster
Why: Protected American industries from foreign competition, especially British manufactured goods; hoped it would strengthen the nation and help the North.
Who: An American inventor
What: developed the cotton gin and contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts
When: early 1800s
Why: helped increase the production of cotton in the South
John C. Calhoun
Who: The 7th Vice President of the United States and a leading Southern politician from South Carolina
What: Advocate of slavery, states' rights, limited government, and nullification. He also believed high tariffs raised the prices of manufactured goods.
When: The first half of the 19th century
Why: (there is no reason...leave blank)
Who: United States politician and a great orator; Leader of the Whig Party, originally pro-North
What: supported the Compromise of 1850, and who spoke against sectionalism
Why: believed the Unite States should be a united nation
Who: Known as the great compromiser
What: created the Missouri Compromise
Why: wanted to keep peace between the northern and southern states; always come up with a solution
Who: 5th president of the United States
What: Wrote the Monroe Doctrine; Proclaimed the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs
Why: Wanted the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars
Who: Mexican priest and revolutionary
What: led a revolt that started the Mexican War of Independence
Why: Mexico wanted to gain its independence from Spain
Who: American inventor
What: designed the first commercially successful steamboat named Clermont
Why: Wanted to help people and goods travel to where they needed to in a quicker manner
De Witt Clinton
Who: The leader of government officials
What: came up with the plan to link New York City with the Great Lakes region (Erie Canal)
Why: wanted to link the East to the West
Who: The 7th President of the United States; general in the War of 1812
What: defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). Invaded Spanish East Florida in 1818. As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
Why:Wanted to increase government powers
John Quincy Adams
Who: 6th U.S. President; Democratic-Republican; Secretary of State under Monroe
What: Created the Adams-Onis Treaty and the Treaty of Ghent. Wrote the Monroe Doctrine.
Why: wanted to help settle disagreements the United States had
Second Bank of the United States
Who: President Madison
What: An institution
Why: became a storage for federal funds and a creditor for (loaning money to) state banks.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Who: Judge John Marshall, Aaron Ogden, Thomas Gibbons
What: Supreme Court case; Established a broad interpretation of the Constitution.
Why: New York State wanted to grant a monopoly of steamboat operation between New York and New Jersey. Aaron Ogden was licensed to operate the ferry and argued that navigation commerce was a state regulated thing, but Thomas Gibbons had his own ferry business and wanted Congress to approve him the right to travel the waters and trade. Judge John Marshall disagreed with Ogden claiming that Congress had as much power over trade as sailing. This ruling was a major upset for states' rights.
Era of Good Feelings
Who: Boston newspaper description
What: Term used to describe the two terms of President James Monroe.
Where: United States
Why: There was only one major political party, the democratic-republicans; it was therefore assumed that political disagreement had disappeared.
When: Idea was brought up in 1806 ; Constructed during 1825-1850.
What: First highway built in the United States that was a major route for shipping and an important connection between the Northeast and the West.
Who: Federal government.
Where: Stretched from Maryland to western Virginia, then years later, it reached Ohio, and continued on to Vandalia, Illinois.
What is sectionalism and how did it hurt the United States?
Sectionalism, or loyalty to one's own region of the country, brought an end to the Era of Good Feelings, the period of national harmony. The regional differences became intense as differences arose over national politics. The conflict over slavery divided Northerners, who opposed slavery, and Southerners, who believed in the necessity and value of slavery. The different regions also disagreed on the need for tariffs; a national bank; and internal improvements, such as canals and roads, to develop the nation's transportation system.
Why did the United States' Industrial Revolution appear first in New England?
The United States' Industrial Revolution first appeared in New England.The New England states—Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, and New Hampshire—offered ideal conditions for the development of factories. New England's soil was poor, and farming was difficult. As a result, people were willing to leave their farms to find work elsewhere. New England had many rushing rivers and streams that provided the waterpower necessary to run the machinery in the factories. New England's geographic location was also an advantage. It was close to the coal and iron from Pennsylvania, and New England had many shipping ports for the transportation of cotton from Southern states and cloth bound for markets throughout the nation. New England also had merchants with capital, which was important for developing machines and building industries.
Which inventions of the early 1800s made the Industrial Revolution possible?
There were several significant inventions during the late 1700s and early 1800s that made the Industrial Revolution possible. There were the spinning jenny, the water frame, the power loom, and the cotton gin. Each of these inventions improved the way cotton was processed and utilized. The steam engine was very important because it led to advances in both manufacturing and transportation. Together, these inventions led to a growth in manufacturing.
What were the advantages and the disadvantages of river travel during the 1800s?
There were some advantages and disadvantages to river travel during the 1800s. River travel was more comfortable than land travel over bumpy and dangerous roads. A person's possessions could be loaded onto a barge and floated downstream without the worry of wheels breaking or a loss of animals needed to pull the load. River travel was also faster if you were traveling in the direction of the current. The current would help push you to where you were going. However, most rivers run north to south, while most people wanted to travel from the east to the west. Also, a person wanting to travel upstream had a long and difficult trip as the barge labored against the current.
Why was the Erie Canal so important to the United States?
The Erie Canal was so important to the United States. The success of the Erie Canal led to exploration in canal building. Canals lowered the cost of shipping goods. They brought prosperity to the cities and towns along their routes. The canals allowed people to live farther away from the rivers. Perhaps most important, they helped unite the growing country.
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