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people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture

Sociocultural Evolution

Lenski's term for the changes that occur as a society gains new technology

Hunting and Gathering

making use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food


the use of hand tools to raise crops


the domestication of animals


large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources


the production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery


the production of information using computer technology

Social Conflict

the struggle between segments of society over valued resources


people who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits


people who sell their labor for wages

Social Institutions

the major spheres of social life, or societal subsystems, organized to meet human needs

False Consciousness

term for explanations of social problems as the shortcomings of individuals rather than as the flaws of society

Class Conflict

conflict between entire classes over the distribution of a society's wealth and power

Class Consciousness

workers' recognition of themselves as a class unified in opposition to capitalists and ultimately to capitalism itself


the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness

Ideal Type

an abstract statement of the essential characteristics of any social phenomenon


values and beliefs passed from generation to generation


a way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task

Rationalization of Society

the historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought


a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals

Mechanical Solidarity

social bonds, based on common sentiments and shared moral values, that are strong among members of preindustrial societies

Organic Solidarity

social bonds, based on specialization and interdependence that are strong among members of industrial societies

Division of Labor

specialized economic activity

Which of the following would Lenski highlight as a cause of change in society?
a. a new religious movements
b. conflict between workers and factory owners
c. the stream engine
d. the extent to which people share moral values

c. the steam engine

Horticultural societies are those in which
a. people hunt animals and gather vegetation
b. people are nomadic
c. people have learned to raise animals
d. people use simple hand tools to raise crops

d. people use simple hand tools to raise crops

Lenski claims that the development of more complex technology
a. has both positive and negative effects
b. is entirely positive
c. is mostly negative
d. has little or no effect on society

a. has both positive and negative effects

Marx believed that industrail-capitalist economic system
a. was very productive
b. concentrated wealth in the hands of a few
c. created conflict between two great classes: capitalists and proletarians
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Marx considered which of the following to be the "foundation" of society?
a. technology
b. the economy
c. dominant ideas
d. type of solidarity

b. the economy

Unlike Mark, Weber thought alienation was caused by
a. social change that is too rapid
b. extensive social inequality
c. the high level of rationality in modern society
d. all of the above

c. the high level of rationality in modern society

What Lenski called the "industrial" society and Marx called the Capitalist society, Weber called
a. the rational society
b. the ideal society
c. the traditional society
d. the technological society

a. the rational society

Marx's materialist analysis contrasts with Weber's
a. optimistic analysis
b. idealist analysis
c. traditional analysis
d. technological analysis

b. idealist analysis

Durkheim thought of society as
a. existing only in people's minds
b. constantly changing
c. an objective reality
d. having no clear existence at all

c. an objective reality

Which of the following questions might Durkheim ask about the ongoing war on terror?
a. would the war on terror unite people across the US?
b. which class benefits most from the war on terror?
c. how does war lead to new kinds of technology?
d. how does war increase the scope of bureaucracy?

a. would the war on terror unite people across the US

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