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AP Euro: Ch. 14: Reformations and Religious Wars
The Catholic Church Split, and there were many ramifications. I used A History of Western Society: Tenth Edition for this Quizlet Set.
Terms in this set (61)
Opposition to the clergy
The practice of holding more than one office at the same time in the Catholic Church.
German university professor. Was going to be a lawyer, decided to become a priest. Caused Christian reforms
The sect of Christianity started by Martin Luther. Opposed to Catholic church
A document issued by the Catholic Church lessening penance or time in purgatory, widely believed to bring forgiveness of all sins
Pope Leo X
Authorized the sale of indulgences
Martin Luther posted these on the door of a church. With printing press, these ideas spread rapidly.
Diet of Worms
Luther was summoned to this in hopes of recanting, but he refused to recant. It drew attention to Luther.
Swiss priest. Preached all of New Testament. Based Christian life only on Biblical text.
Germans protested Catholic Church to get this name.
Considered radicals at the time because they supported break with prevailing ideas. Known to "rebaptize". They, along with other religious radicals were pacifists. (Weaker power is dumber to be bellicose.)
German Peasants' War of 1525
Inspired by Luther, triggered by crop failures, many peasants rebelled against the social order. Luther was vehemently opposed to rebellion; supported the death of rebels.
Katharina von Bora and Anna Reinhart
The wives of Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingly, respectively. Marriage was thought by Protestants to be the best way to handle inevitable lust. Still, wives must be obedient and inferior to husbands.
Dynasty of rulers who came to power via advantageous marriages
Ruled Austria, married Princess Eleonore
Son of Frederick III, Married Mary of Burgundy. Got his son and daughter to marry children of Ferdinand and Isabella
Mary of Burgundy
Married to Maximilian. Their marriage sparked conflict between French and Austrians.
Ferdinand and Isabella
King and Queen of Spain
Inherited, gained, ruled lots of diverse European lands. Defended Catholicism. He felt it was his duty to maintain political and religious Christendom in Western Europe.
Swiss semi-independent territories. Each one had its decided religion.
Imperial Diet in 1530
Charles V held meeting to try to halt religious split
Lutheran statement of faith as a result of Imperial Diet in 1530
Peace of Augsburg
Ended religious war in Germany for a while
King Christian III (r. 1536-1559)
Ruler of Denmark-Norway-Iceland. Broke with Catholic Church in 1530s; clergy followed.Norway, Iceland opposed.
Gustavas Vasa (r. 1523-1560)
Took over Denmark during civil war.
Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547)
Married to Catherine of Aragon (widow of his brother). When she wasn't very fertile, he decided God was punishing him. Tried to get annulment. Removed England from Catholic jurisdiction.
Pope Clement VII
Henry VIII asked for annulment. He was a prisoner of Charles V. He stalled.
Wrote Utopia, thought to oppose king, beheaded.
Henry's Chief Minister (advisor)
Catholicism in Ireland
Strong Catholic sentiments in Ireland because opposition to England
Prepared Book of Common Prayer for English Church
Tried to move Anglican Church back to Catholicism
Calvinists who wished to purify the Church of England of its Catholic aspects
Required people to go to church annually (civic duty)
(Ruled England) Prepared huge naval fleet
England vs. Spain in English Channel: England won with smaller fleet, more mobile. Led to Spanish psychological weakness/reputation.
From Geneva. Wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion. Big religious thinker
Based on Predestination, ended up being part of Protestantism
The idea that God has determined the salvation of damnation of individuals based on his will and purpose, not on their merit or works
Religious blasphemy. People were killed over it a lot.
King James V and Mary, Queen of Scots
Opposed religious reform, staunch Catholics
Calvinist who tried to reconstruct church structure
Bohemia in the fifteenth century
Czech majority with Husism. Germans ruled. Lutheranism appealed.
Geographically huge. Diverse population. Calvinism was more appealing than Lutheranism because originated in France, not Germany.
Made Poland Catholic again. Wanted to punish Calvinists.
Suleiman the Magnificent
His attack on Hungarians was devastating. It divided Hungary. Once occupying, he let people do their own religion, but made a tax for not being Muslim.
Council of Trent
It concluded that in Catholic Church, scripture and traditions are both equally valid for religious authority. Suppressed pluralism, simony, concubines, indulgences, etc.
Pope Paul III
Pope who improved the Catholic Church. Ended simony, increased education among church officials.
The selling of church offices
The Roman Catholic agency to end heresy.
Founded by Ignatius Loyola. Part of Catholicism. Wanted to spread Christianity actively.
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
Ended Habsburg-Valois wars. Spain won. France lost. France went into social turmoil afterward
King Francis I
France was in debt after Habsburg-Valois wars. He tried to sell public offices and treaty with pope.
Concordat of Bologna
Gave French crown right to appoint all French bishops and abbots -->lots of money. No need to revolt against Rome.
Idea by Calvinists to take down images of God: paintings, statues, stained-glass windows
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Catholics attacked Calvinists during iconoclasm; killed many uninvolved wedding guests
French Protestant moderates who believed only a strong Monarchy could bring France from collapse.
Edict of Nantes
Document issued by Henry IV 1598 granting religious worship rights, helped restore peace
Union of Utrecht
Alliance of Holland to separate from Spain to form United Provinces of the Netherlands
The Great European Witch-Hunt
Became common 1560-1660. Many people (mostly women) were thought to have made pacts with the devil, and were causing havoc. Different from before, when witches were making magic.
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