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Unit 8 - DNA Structure, function, and replication
Terms in this set (48)
Nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living things
Nucleic Acid (macromolecule)
Molecules that allow organisms to transfer genetic info from one generation to the next
The subunits that make up the Nucleic Acid molecules
5 carbon sugar
Make up the building blocks of DNA: AGCT. They attach to a sugar to form nucleosides.
Weak bond allowing the DNA to split when necessary
The number of A's and T's are about equal to the number of C's and G's.
*A pairs with T and C pairs with G
Used x-ray techniques to find pattern of DNA
Discovered DNA is double stranded and the DNA is twisted like coils of a spring
Watson and Crick
created the first accurate model of DNA that explained how the strands were held together, base pairing, and that the strands run in opposite directions
The 2 strands of DNA run in opposite directions and form a sequence
DNA that coiles around protiens
A strand of DNA that is enclosed with genes
A section of DNA that codes for one specific protein
The process of copying the DNA before cell division so we don't run out of DNA
Steps of DNA replication
- DNA molecule unwinds and unzips
-Complementary strands are formed
-Two new DNA strands are formed
Complimentary DNA strands
Two strands that make up a double-stranded molecule of DNA base pair to each other
Important because its the base principal of DNA replication
Unzips genes (the molecule) by breaking the hydrogen bonds
heliCASE = discovers/unzips the genes
Joins many nitrogenous bases together creating the new strand and proofreads each new DNA strand to make sure it's an exact copy of its original
secures the bonds between the sugar and phosphate; an enzyme
Eukaryotic DNA Replication
can start in hundereds of different places on the DNA molecule at the same time;can procede in both directions
Changes to the DNA sequence can alter genes which can alter proteins which may or may not result in beneficial or harmful changes to the copied DNA code
DNA on the tips of chromosomes
Add short, repeated DNA telomere sequences to the telomeres.
On what molecule are our genetic instructions "written?"
The shape of our double-stranded genetic molecule is referred to as a _________________
Our genetic molecule is "written" with four chemical bases:
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine
G always pairs with __________ and T always pairs with _________
In eukaryotic cells, DNA is always found in this organelle:
Every single one of your existing cells has the EXACT same DNA code as _________________
Your original cell
Why must a cell copy its DNA during DNA replication
For cell division - mitosis
Summarize DNA replication
DNA splits, single strand creates more, A/T and C/G pair, 8 hours later cell has completed the copy of its DNA
What is the name given to cell division?
Chromosomes can be compared to _________ because they contain and organize "recipes"
Most humans have _______ chromosomes in each cell
From where, specifically, did our chromosomes come?
23 from each parent
Why are proteins so important to you and how is the DNA code related to proteins?
They make cells, the chemicals and parts a cell needs to do its job
DNA sequences that code for specific proteins are called _______
Genes ; these are a bit like individual recipes in our chromosome cookbooks
What best explains why DNA is sometimes referred to as the blueprints for life?
DNA contains the instructions for making proteins which make cells which make YOU!
What are the building blocks of DNA?
Nucleotides in DNA are made of three basic components:
Deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
The nucleotides in DNA are joined by _________
DNA is found in the _______________
Why does the solution contain detergent?
Disrupts the cell membrane and nuclear envelope, causing the cells to burst open and release their DNA
What does salt solution cause?
Proteins and other cellular debris clump together
Because DNA is soluble, what happens?
The DNA clumps together and can be seen (it looks like stringy snot)
The detergent breaks apart the ____________, releasing ____________
Cell membranes, cell contents
Meat tenderizer contains ___________ which cut the _________________
Enzymes, proteins away from the DNA
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