mental activity; describes the acquisition, storage, transformation, and use of knowledge
1) synonym for cognition 2) the cognitive approach to psychology; a theoretical approach ("cognitive approach") that emphasizes people's knowledge and their mental processes.
Established the first psychology lab in 1879 and studied mental processes using introspection.
the process of systematically analyzing one's own sensations and reporting them as objecting as possible
What is the behaviorist approach to psychology?
Psychology must focus on objective, observable reactions to stimuli in the environment. Behaviorists avoided terms that referred to mental events such as "image," "idea," and "thought."
What caused the shift from behaviorism to cognitive psychology in the 1950's?
- Disenchantment due to nature of experiments (i.e. Little Albert) - Growth of interest in memory, developmental psychology (Piaget), linguistics (Chomsky), and emergence of computers (Information-Processing Approach).
1) a comparison to brain function 2) a mental process can be interpreted as information progressing through the system in a series of stages, one step at a time. (i.e. flowchart)
Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP
the model proposing that cognitive processes can be understood in terms of networks that link together neuron-like units; the model states that many operations proceed simultaneously, rather than one at a time
a type of cognitive processing in which only one item is handled at a given time and one step must be completed before proceeding to the next step (see Information-Processing Approach)
What are the limitations of the experimental method?
- lack of ecological validity - argument that the best things in life cannot be quantified (i.e. love, joy, beauty, truth) - belief as a confounding variable (Magellan's Diary)
a principle stating that the conditions in which research is conducted should be similar to the natural setting to which the results will be applied
donut-shaped structure that is important in memory
two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion, especially fear and aggression.
Are our behaviors determined by brain function?
Physiological correlates can almost always be found for psychological states. However, this does not necessarily mean that brain states cause mental states. i.e. Psychotherapy and drug therapy produce similar types of brain changes.