90 terms

Digestive Mid Term

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Oral Cavity
Mouth
Buccal Cavity
Mouth
Lips
external skin w/ pigments
Philtrum
Connection between gums and upper lip
Tubercle
Bump at end of philtrum
Oral Fissure
Line when lips are closed
Gingiva
Scientific name for gums
Buccinator muscle
forms majority of cheeks
Hard palate
roof of mouth
Soft palate
divider between mouth and nasal pharynx
Fauces
opening that leads from the mouth to the oral fauces
Uvula
tissue that suspends from soft palate
Tongue
solid mass of skeletal muscles
Mastication
chewing
Deglutition
Swallowing
Papillae
rough elevations on your tongue
Lingual frenulum
fold of mucous membrane under your tongue
Lingual vein
things get absorbed here
taste buds
in papillae, stimulated by chemicals in saliva
Buccal glands
little glands in cheek lining
Parotid glands
largest salivary gland, in front of your ear, secretes watery serous saliva with enzymes
Submandibular glands
size of a walnut, secretes mucous and saliva with enzymes
Sublingual glands
smallest gland, located at the floor of your mouth, secretes mucous and saliva with no enzymes
Teeth
Organs of mastication
Crown
smallest and exposed portion of tooth
Neck
narrow portion under the gum line, surrounded by gingiva
Root
part that fits into the socket of the mandible and maxilla
Enamel
hardest and most chemically stable substance in the body
Dentin
under enamel, softer than enamel, greatest portion of tooth shell
Cementum
anchors tooth to socket, covers neck and root
Peridontal Membrane
tissue that covers cementum
Pulp cavity
cavity in tooth where, nerves, veins, and arteries are housed
Alveolar Process
socket/indentations in bone where teeth set
Nasopharynx
extends from nose to area behind your soft palate
Oropharynx
extends from soft palate to your hyoid bone
Laryngopharynx
extends from hyoid bone to your esophagus
Bolus
rounded ball of food that is chewed and swallowed
Epiglottis
flap of hyalin cartilage, that covers trachea to keep food out
upper third of esophagus
all skeletal muscle
middle third of esophagus
half skeletal, half smooth
lower third of esophagus
all smooth muscle
Lumen
open space in a hollow organ, typically how food gets through
Tissue layers
Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa
Cardiac Sphincter
loweresophogial sphincter
Digestion in pharynx and esophagus
Mechanic
Peristalsis
involuntary wavelike ripple that carries food through the GI tract
Stomach Location
Upper left quadrant of abdominal cavity
Stomach Structure
J shaped pouch
Fundus
Upper portion of the stomach
Body
Central portion of the stomach
Pylorus
Narrow portion of the stomach
Lesser curvature
Inside curve of the stomach
Greater curvature
Outside curve of the stomach
Sphincter
circular muscle that opens and closes to regulate the passage of food
Rugae
Folds that allow the stomach to distend
Gastric pits
depressions in rugae
Gastric glands
hidden in the gastric pits
Chief cells
Secrete pepsin
Parietal cells
Secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
Muscularis layer
allows the stomach to churn
Longitudinal
Up and down muscle
Circular
circular muscle
Oblique
diagonal muscle
Churning
forward and backward movement of stomach contents
Chyme
thick milky material
Gastrin
hormone secreted by your stomach. Turn stomach on
GIP
secreted by small intestines. Turn stomach off
Sm. Int location
Fills most of abdominal cavity
Plicae
Circular folds in small intestine
Villi
fingerlike projections off of plicae
Microvilli
on the villi, to give more surface area
Segmentation
side to side movement of contents to make contact with the wall of the small intestine
Lg. Int Function(s)
Reabsorb water and ions, form and store feces
Cecum
5-8 Cm long.
Ascending Colon
right side of the abdominal cavity
Ilaececal Valve
Prevents food from leaving large intestine
Transverse colon
across the top of abdominal cavity
Hepatic Flexure
90 degree angle that colon makes by your liver
Splenic flexure
90 degree angle that colon makes by your spleen
Descending colon
Vertical left side of your abdominal cavity
Sigmoid colon
last segment of your colon
Rectum
last 7-8 inches of your large intestine where your feces are stored
anal canal
last 1-2 inches of the large intestine
anus
actual opening
Defication
emptying your colon
Fecal contents
Things we cant digest or need
Constipation
when peristalsis is slow
Diarrhea
Fast peristalsis
Vermiform Appendix structure
Wormlike tubular organ
Vermiform appendix function
breeding ground for bacteria