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The art of using materials to transform ideas into a real object. A three-dimensional form that is not utilitarian.

three dimensional

Height, width, and depth


An element of art that is three dimensional and encloses volume


Not useful objects


Interior space


To change shape or form


An element of art. The path of a moving point through space. Has width. texture, direction, color, and length.


An element of art that refers to emptiness. It's the area above, below, around, between, and within an object.


a principle of art concerned with equalizing forces, or elements in a work of art,. Art elements become the visual forces or weights.

central axis

a dividing line that works as a point of balance. It may be vertical or horizontal.

formal balance

when equal, or very similar, elements are placed on opposite sides of a central axis. often the two halves are identical, mirror images of each other.

informal balance

balance of unlike objects. it relies on artistic arrangement of objects to appear balanced. it is more complex than symmetry.


a large object close to a dominant area can be balanced by a smaller object placed further away from the dominant area.

size and contour

large shapes appear heavier than small shapes. several small shapes can balance a larger one. an object with complex edges appears heavier than one with single edges. a small complex object can balance a large simple object.


high intensity color has more visual weight than low intensity color. our eyes are drawn to bright color. a small area of bright color is able to balance a larger area of a dull, neutral color.


dark colors appear heavier than light colors


flattened clay


rolled form of clay


squeezing clay to create hollow form


liquified clay used to bond clay pieces together


scratching clay to prepare for bonding

needle tool

tool used for cutting clay

serrated rib

tool used to score clay

modelling tool

tool used to blend and smooth clay

ribbon tool

tool used for carving

leather band

clay is firm and moist, not soft


element of art that is derived from reflected light


the name of the color in the color spectrum


the brightness or dullness of a hue


element that describes the darkness and brightness of a color


hue + white


hue + black


goes well together, suit each other; hues opposite of each other on the color wheel


colors that sit side by side on color wheel (share a common hue)


yellow, yellow orange, orange, red orange, red, yellow green


green, blue, violet, blue green, blue violet, red violet


3rd level color


composed of three different hues spread equidistant from each other on the color wheel

split component

combination of one hue and (plus) two hues on either side of its component

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