Principles of Supervision
Terms in this set (162)
Management process used to compare actual performance to organizational goals and standards
focuses on short-term goals of an organization with high level of details
process used in first stage of planning to gather, evaluate, and summarize relevant info.
Task Performance Leadership
setting goals for employees and closely supervising quality and accuracy describe
Ten roles of managers were first identified by whom?
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs
directing and monitoring ongoing activities during production at a factory are typical of...(Ex is monitoring budgets)
focuses on end results (ex. comparing sales to expenses)
focuses on preventing problems before they occur (Example budget)
relates to long-term goals/low details
involved intermediate-term goals
occurs in the final stage of strategic planning
relates to the forces that prevent and encourage change.
motivate others to focus on the good of the group
arouse excitement in followers.
Group maintenance leaders
focus on group stability and harmony
researched management styles and developed the linking pin model.
buy raw materials from wholesalers to make products to sell to final consumers
most likely to cause employee confusion regarding who is in charge because of dual line of command. Blends functional and product organization.
refers to general influences on a business, which are also known as indirect forces.
laws, economies, technological advancements, and global markets
direct forces such as suppliers and customers
planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
four functions of management as developed by Henri Fayol
A leader with a personality that employees find admirable uses what type of power?
a leader's experience
leader who controls punishments that employees want to avoid use this
authority to tell subordinates what to do.
uses pricing mechanisms and economic data to regulate activities in an organization
and operator control
processes used in computerized manufacturing.
the idea that employees with shared values require fewer bureaucratic controls.
developed first theory of professional management functions
who improved industrial efficiency?
leading founder of sociology
Functional departmentalization method
most cost effective because resources are used efficiently
required at every level of management
based on the idea that great leaders are born with certain characteristics.(self-assurance, integrity, assertiveness)
Content theories of motivation
Maslow's hierarchy (people satisfy needs in specific order), Alderfer's ERG theory (people have 3 basic needs: Existence, relatedness and growth), and McCLelland's needs(3 dominant needs: Achievement, affiliation, and power)
assesses characteristics of the followers and environmental factors before determining appropriate leadership behavior.
Figurehead, leader, liaison
interpersonal roles of managers
Monitor, Disseminator, spokesperson
informational roles of managers
Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator
decisional roles of managers
the belief that good job performance will lead to certain outcomes.
a feedback control tool used to reduce defects in manufacturing. Developed by Motorola
established for dealing with ongoing activities so that decisions can be made quickly, easily, and consistently.
role of manager involved in making improvements to a unit
bargains to gain benefits
observes successes, failures, and problems that may affect the unit
communicates with people inside and outside the organization
(people satisfy needs in specific order)
Alderfer's ERG theory
(people have 3 basic needs: Existence, relatedness and growth),
(3 dominant needs: Achievement, affiliation, and power)
According to expectancy theory, the importance an employee places on a specific outcome
Vroom's expectancy theory
analyzes what motivates people
developed by an international group of business leaders address universal business ethics. The main premise is showing human dignity and working toward the common good.
are established and implemented to help employees behave in the best interests of a business
leadership theory that asserts that group maintenance behaviors, such as trust, mutual respect, mutual loyalty, and open communication, can lead to the dev of personal relationships with group members.
LPC and Hersey-Blanchard theories
situational (NOT Behavioral) leadership theories
compliance-based ethics programs
designed to impose punishments upon ethics violators.
Integrity-based ethics programs
instill a sense of personal responsibility into employees
support line departments (ex: accounting dept in auto manufacturer)
special skills or knowledge held by organizations that are unique and valuable.
failing to provide a reinforcing consequence(Ex: failing to show appreciation or compliment hard work.
wide span control
many workers report to one supervisor
narrow span of control
small number of workers report to one supervisor
vertical integration, diversification, and concentration on a single business
Three types of corporate-level strategies.
task specific knowledge refers to
Level 5 leaders
leaders characterized by determination and personal humility.
pseudo transformational leaders
leader who focus on self issues.
leaders who live in other cultures for a while, return home and become leaders
exchange rewards or authority for people to follow them.
low labor costs
management decision to outsource mfg jobs to foreign countries have been primarily influenced by
developed a situational model of leadership that leads to five possible decision styles. Theory works like a funnel w/questions that lead to a recommended decision style.
developed least preferred coworker(LPC) theory that asserts that a leader's style must match a situation.
used a differentiation strategy in pursuit of competitive advantage
involves being unique in an industry either through quality, marketing, or service.
business that used low-cost strategies to gan competitive advantage.
management activities such as hiring, training, and motivating workers are part of the
summarizes info gathered in an environmental analysis during strategic planning process.
Customer relationship management
helps determine the environmental impact of a product (LCA)
Characteristics of followers and environmental factors
two situational factors in the path-goal theory
________ are the expressions of the goals and intentions of top management as they relate to the various elements of the organization.
__________ are more specific than policies and spell out rather precisely what is to be done and how.
__________________management was founded by Frederick Taylor and was dedicated to the use of scientific methods to find the one best way to perform every job.
___________ formulated management principles that became the foundation for many modern management principles.
_________ advocated bureaucracy, an organizational structure built on authority, control, reporting, limited responsibility, and impersonality in treatment of employees.
The _______________ movement began with Elton Mayo, who found that productivity increased when employees believed management was concerned with their welfare.
________________ is best remembered for his Theory-X and Theory-Y descriptions of management leadership.
managers assume employees are naturally lazy, irresponsible, and work only for pay and that they must be motivated by prodding, special rewards, and fear
managers see work as a natural human activity and believe that properly trained and encouraged employees seek responsibility, want to contribute to their organization, prefer challenges to idleness, and control their own behavior.
an organization that depends on formal rules and regulations, selection of personnel based on merit, and a well-defined chain of command. Many governmental organizations have adopted Weber's model and nearly all large organizations utilize at least some of his recommendations.
Organizational systems are designed to convert resources known as inputs, to products and services, known as outputs by use of systematic steps known as _________.
_________ groups are groups from which ethics are derived.
are decisions that support and make strategic decisions a reality.
____________conflicts delay decisions because choices are similar and any choice will likely be satisfactory.
________________ conflicts are usually resolved satisfactorily but are an identifiable cause of delay.
__________________ conflicts occur when the results of decisions are either uncertain or potentially harmful.
Most internal conflicts involve __________conflicts.
These conflicts are relatively rare and are the result of the inability to perceive the alternatives that are not painful, harmful, or have a negative outcome. Any choice appears to be a bad one.
_________ decision making involves a set of step-by-step actions that lead to carefully considered decisions.
Sometimes referred to as free-rein leadership, the _____________ style of leading leaves the actual decision making up to the employees, while the leader encourages employees' ideas, and offers insights or opinions when asked.
Management by objectives
is a results-oriented employee involvement philosophy of management.
is used by many organizations, but it is a difficult system to make work because it requires an open communication system.
A variation of MBO is management by _________.
supervisors do not need to be told of the many events that happen according to plan. They should be informed of what did not go according to plan. This approach suggests that supervisors relax the close supervision they normally give their workers.
involves adding to the position horizontally, by requiring more duties of a similar level of skill. Another term for this is horizontal loading
involves adding vertically to a job by giving the position planning and controlling responsibilities.
The most common type is departmentation by
Unity of Command
According to the ________________ principle, everyone should report to and be accountable to only one boss.
A type of Departmentation, which is a hybrid type of departmentation and is used when a company needs to complete a project which demands close, integrated work between people from various departments.
___________ management makes the assumption that the best people in the organization will make the decisions.
The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation, also known as ________'s Motivator-hygiene theory which states that job performance is a balance of motivators and hygiene factors.
In _________ and Schmidt's contingency theory, the subordinate-centered leader relies entirely on the subordinates to make the decisions.
The _______ contingency model proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader's style of interacting with his or her subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader.
task or relationship oriented.
Fiedler developed an instrument, which he called the least preferred coworker (LPC)questionnaire, which purports to measure whether a person is
cannot be changed.
A significant finding of Feidler's contingency theory was that a leader's style
_______LPC leaders are more relationship oriented,
whereas____LPC leaders are more task-oriented.
The equal pay act of 1963
requires that men and women be paid the same when they do essentially the same work
civil rights act of 1964.
All forms of discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, or national origin are forbidden based on the
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967.
People 40 and older are protected from job discrimination on the basis of age in any terms or conditions of employment based on the
__________ thinkers are precise, well organized, conformist, and detail oriented.
thinkers are people oriented, creative, dislike details and precise rules, and deal with ambiguity quite well.
_____ authority is the right to advise, or recommend to line personnel.
Line authority is the right to act, to make decisions, and to _______.
____ Authority is the authority that managers exercise over their immediate subordinates, and corresponds directly to the chain of command.
wandering, watching, and working
The "Three Wonderful and Workable W's," which consist of _________, can be used as a control.
_____________ application, the sporadic application of cost-control measures, often sends confusing messages throughout the organization.
The Law of Maldistribution, a concept developed by Vilfredo ______, states that 80 percent of problems, including costs, occur in 20 percent of the organization or population.
Pro bono publico
is a legal term that means "in the interest of the people."
the Equal Employment Opportunity Act,
Title seven of the Civil Rights Act of 1964,Also known as
Title VII exempts businesses with less than __ employees, certain religious organization businesses, businesses owned by Indian tribes, members of Congress, and bona fide country clubs.
Any action that may not be intended to be discriminatory, but has a discriminatory result is called _________ effect.
In 1970, the United States established the ___ to establish standards for a safe and healthy physical environment.
is the denial of one's own basic desires.
________ is stress that is beneficial and necessary. (Hans Selye)
________________ are quantitative restrictions on imports that may be expressed as individual units imported or as a total value of imports.
________ is the economic condition in which the general price level for goods and services falls steadily throughout the economy.
is someone who has the respect and confidence of others.
With ___________, people are rewarded for their efforts as well as the end results.
It is unfortunate that ________________ performance evaluations are probably the most frequently used.
___________________ performance evaluations focus on future improvement rather than being graded in comparison to others.
______ performance appraisals are a means for justifying subsequent management action related to individual employees.
Since their origin in 1922, _______ rating scales have been the most popular and widely used method of evaluating employees.Each of these factors is rated on a scale, usually from 1 to 5, with 1 being very poor and 5 being outstanding.
____________systems are the most simple types of employee comparisons.
_________ force supervisors to compare not only overall performance but various attributes, such as job skills, to those of other employees
__________ require supervisors to make a written descriptive assessment of each employee's performance.
Critical incident appraisals
________________ involve recording both good and poor performance that deviates from the norm.
______________ compares an employee's performance against established Standards.
management by Objectives.
In the late 1960's and early 1970's organizations became obsessed with _________________, which is based on Peter Drucker's admonition that management can only be judged by results.
__________ refers to following the rules of a field of knowledge.
In some cases the supervisor must weigh _______. How did the company handle previous violations? Did it literally stick to the written rule or make some reasonable exceptions?
1. Rules must be reasonable. Employees must be able to comply with rules, and penalties must fit the severity of the infraction.
2. Employees must understand the rules and potential penalties. If a rule is violated out of ignorance, corrective action may consist of informing the violator of the rule and potential penalties.
3. Judgment must be used in rule enforcement.
Three conditions must exist for effective disciplinary action:
are systematic steps used to hear employee complaints and ensure due process in the event of pending adverse actions.
verbal and non-verbal.
The two major types of communication codes are
After appearance, ______ is usually the next type of communication on which judgments are made.
Our voice characteristics, such as emphasis on specific words, emotional state, sincerity, and degree of interest, are interpreted by others before our words are given meaning, this is known as ____________.
_________, or use of space, is also an important form of communication.
is the study of the way individuals use time to communicate.
. Management by walking around (MBWA)
Tom Peters states that managers who make themselves known to employees and carefully listen, build trust, confidence, and make change much easier. This is called...
______________ overload are bottlenecks that prevent upward communication created by both the structure and the size of organizations.
A ____ is a judgment of others based on one or a limited number of personal characteristics.