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Chapter 18 History Test
Terms in this set (31)
-former US government official
-he was convicted of lying in court for denying he had association with a Soviet agent.
-he helped give advice to FDR at Yalta Conference.
The Pumpkin Papers
-Whitaker Chambers accused Hiss of giving him St. Department docs.
-Chambers led the prosecutor to a pumpkin patch behind his house.
-Chambers took a microfilm and hid it in a hollowed out pumpkin, this evidence convicted Hiss and he served 4 years in jail.
-joint occupancy of Berlin became a problem.
-France, GB, and US combined into one nation.
-the Soviets responded by declaring Berlin off limits to the rest of the world.
-USSR wanted to punish Germany because they killed 20 million people in the last 2 wars and shut off powers to West Berlin.
-roads blockaded, allies with the airlift dropped 2 million tons of supplies to Berlin.
-war b/w the Chiang Kai-Shek and Mao Zedong broke out.
-Chiang relied on US financial aid.
-Mao relied on USSR financial aid.
-Mao promised land reform but chiang didn't.
-Chiang allowed corruption into all levels of gov't.
-created to gather and evaluate foreign intelligence information vital to US security.
-deals with external threats.
-CIA carried project MK-ULTRA-included experiments at universities, prisons, and hospitals.
-used LSD until it was dangerous.
first successful satellite launch
went 2,453 miles high and priced for 8 years
-we sent monkeys into space before we sent humans into space.
-Able and Baker survived a 16-minute flight but Able died 4 days later because of an allergic reaction.
-House Un-American Activities Committee
-it investigates fascist, communist, and other so-called extremist or subversive political organizations.
-HUAC presented evidence that 10 Hollywood writers and directors had communist affiliations.
-they refused to confirm or deny the charges made against them and were put in jail for contempt of court
-to deny someone work in a certain field.
-Burgess Meredith (former captain in US airfare) was included in the blacklisting by HUAC.
-a number of those blacklisted were still barred from work in their professions for years afterward.
-anti-Soviet uprising that shook the Communist world
-Khrushchev encouraged Hungary to rebel against the USSR by denouncing the crimes of Stalin
-the Hungarian gov't declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw pact.
-Soviets sent tanks and troops the next day
The US condemned the Soviets and congress used this to claim a missile gap between the US and USSR.
Ike (Massive Retaliation)
-Ike and his Sec. of St became an advocate of Brinkmanship.
-told soviets about serious consequences if they attacked any country.
-the US would use massive retaliation against any communist aggression.
-Ike and Dulles considered communism to be evil.
Ike (Eisenhower Doctrine)
-Soviet prestige in the Middle East rose because of support for Egypt
-The Eisenhower Doctrine promised US help defending the Middle East against the spread of communism.
-countries that took stances opposed to Communism would be given aid in different forms.
Julius and Ethyl Rosenburg
-members of the US communist party
-accused of giving the soviets information about the A-Bomb
-Ethels brother, David green glass, was the major witness against them
-David got 15 years in prison for his cooperation
-Julius and Ethel were electrocuted at Sing-Sing prison
after Julius and Ethel were killed, he said that Julius was guilty/Ethel was innocent...no one knows if what was said was true.
-people of south Korea set up Republic of Korea.
-North Korea responded with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
-The North Koreans invaded South Korea in 1950 and started a war between them.
-The Chinese sent troops to help North Korea.
- War cost about $471 billion.
NATO (what was it, who were the members)
-North Atlantic Treaty Organization---US Canada and every democratic nation in Europe
-western allies decided Western Europe needed military and economic support to remain free
-1st ever peacetime alliance for the US to participate in
Warsaw Pact (what was it, who were the members)
-Soviets recognized West Germany and created this pact as a counterpoint to NATO
-Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria
-Soviets tighten grip on Eastern Europe---Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland all became satellite nations
-these were countries that were dependent upon and dominated by the Soviets
Senator Joseph McCarthy
-he attacked alleged Communist subversion within the administrations of first Truman, and the Ike.
-he moved from one charge to another and he slander various people and groups without producing any evidence.
-started the McCarran Act: was vetoed but congress//required all communists in the US to register as foreign agents.
-project name for 3 artificial satellites launched by the USSR.
-the launch of Sputnik increased cold war fears.
-Sputnik II was launched with Laika
-Laika died 4 days after launch from stress and overheating, probably due to a malfunction in the thermal control system.
Suez Canal Crisis
-General Nasser (Egyptian leader) nationalized on the Suez Canal
-England /France objected as 75% of Western Europe's oil imports were shipped through the canal.
-Soviets threatened nuclear retaliation while Egypt, Syria, and Jordan aligned with each other, and the potential for World War III seemed imminent.
-the UN ordered a cease-fire to avoid an all-out war
-Truman's Foreign Policy focuses on Containment.
-Containment---communism was a disease to be quarantined or held in check.
-Truman Doctrine---one of many ways he tried to accomplish this goal.
-Greece and Turkey received aid under this plan.
-US would support any free country resisting a takeover by an outside or an armed force.
-This began with a $400 million aid program for the Greek and Turkish governments.
-1st program officially aimed at containing communism
-European Recovery Program was the next step in the Containment policy.
-Sec. of State George Marshall made a plan for economic aid and technical assistance to the 16 countries that accepted it.
-2 points: Restore war-ravaged Western European economy as trading partners for the US and
To check the advance of communism in Europe.
-Ike authorized U-2 spy planes to conduct several reconnaissance missions over the Soviet Union
-he hoped to disprove rumors of Soviet military superiority.
Francis Gary Powers
-right before a critical Paris summer conference, the Soviets shot down Gary Powers.
-Ike denied the event at first.
-Powers was sentenced to 10 years in prison, and after 17 months he was exchanged for a Soviet spy who had been convicted in an American court.
-the UN wanted to maintain international peace and security
-the security council consisted of USA, USSR, GB, France and China.
-they were granted special veto powers for the organization