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Basic Chemistry (AP BIOLOGY)

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The basic building block of matter
atom
A pure substance containing one type of atom
element
Atoms are made of
protons, electrons, and neutrons
Protons and neutrons are located in
the nucleus of the atom
Electrons have a ____charge, ___mass.
negative; no
Protons have a ___charge, and a mass of
positive; 1 dalton
Neutrons have ____ no charge and a mass of ___
1 dalton
The periodic table organizes atoms by
atomic number
Vertical columns with the same number of valence electrons
Groups/families
Horizontal columns with the same number of energy levels
periods
The atomic number is equal to
the number of protons
The atomic mass number is equal to the
number of protons and neutrons
In a neutral atoms, the number of protons equals
the number of electrons
To figure out the number of neutrons
subtract atomic mass and the atomic number
Has more or less neutrons than shown on the periodic table
isotope
Element that has lost or gained electrons
ion
Ion that has lost electrons is a ___ and has a ___charge
cation; positive
Alkali metals are found in
Family 1
Alkaline Earch metals are found in
family 2
Elements in family 17 are the
halogens
Elements in family 16 are the
oxygen family
Family 17 elements have __ electrons in their outer shell
7
Family 16 have __ electrons in their outer shell
6
These bonds occur between ions where there is a transfer of electrons
ionic bonds
A compound contains
one or more different elements
the smallest part of a compound
molecule
The total charge of a compound must equal
0
shows the number of atoms and are written after the symbol
subscript
To write subscipts
criss cross the charges
shows the number of molecules and are written in front of a formula
coefficients
Molar mass is found by
multiplying the atomic mass number by the number of atoms of that element
There are __ naturally occurring elements
92
When radioactive elements decay they give off
alpha, beta, and gamma particles
All elements after 92 are
manmade
The breaking apart of an element with the release of energy
fission
the joining of 2 H atoms to form a helium atom with the release of energy as on the sun
fusion
Acids turn
litmus red
Name three characteristics of Acids
hydrogen donors, taste sour, are corrosive
Name 4 characteristics of bases
hydrogen acceptors, feel slippery, used in soaps, dissolve fats
Bases turn
litmus blue and phenolpthalein pink
an ion that has gained electrons in an ____ and has a __ charge
anion; positive