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Chapter 1: The study of life
Terms in this set (60)
the study of life
Study of the smallest ____ to the largest ___
Contains studying life over huge spans of time
from contemporary organisms to ancestral life forms. 4 billion years ago to today.
"the man who knows"
We share common traits with other organisms but are more
specialized in certain traits
We study biology to learn about ___ and our world
New research methods developed over past decades present an information explosion.
Ex. Human Genome Project
Technological advances yield new info that changes the framework accepted by majority of biologists.
Ex. World Wide Web, computer accessibility.
Biology is a continuous state of ____ due to rapid flow. However, there are enduring unifying themes that pervade the science of biology.
Hierarchy of organization: Life is organized on many structural levels (LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION) with each level buildings on the levels below it.
Atoms make up
molecules (biological) (protein, sugar)
molecules make up
subcellular organelles (mitochondria, ribosomes)
subcellular organelles make up
cells (basic unit of life)
similar cells make up
similar tissues make up
similar organs make up
organ systems working together make up
atoms, molecules, and subcellular organelles are
cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and complex organisms are
localized group of organisms belonging to the same species
population of species living in the same area
energy-processing system of community interactions that include non-living environmental factors (soil, water)
large scale communities classified by predominant vegetation type and distinctive combinations of plants and animals
sum of all earth's ecosystems
what is the order of the levels of organization beyond the individual organism?
population, community, ecosystem, biomes, biosphere.
all living organisms contain
one of the ten themes; each level of organization has this; they result from the interactions between components; associated with life, order, reproduction, growth and development, energy utilization, response to the environment, homeostasis,adaptation. with each step upward in the hierarchy, new properties emerge that were not present at simpler organization levels
theory of biogenesis- life comes only from life.
the total of all life processes that keeps us alive.
when simple substances are made into complex substances. ex. amino acids make proteins. glycerol plus fatty acids make lipids (or fat)
breaking down of complex substances into simpler ones. ex. sugar broken down into individual glucose molecules.
amino acids are the
building blocks of protein
the principle that higher level of order cannot be explained by examining parts individually when taken apart.
The principle that complex systems can be understood better by studying its individual parts. Ex. Watson and Crick deduced the role of DNA in inheritance by studying its molecular structure.
basic unit of life
Father of Biology. 1665-Discovered the cell
Anton van Leeuwenhok
1600s; used microscope to observe living organisms in pond water; blood cells, animal sperm cells.
Schleiden and Schwann
using microscope discovered that all living things are made of cells which formed the basis of the Cell Theory
all living things are composed of cells. all cells come from pre existing cells. The cell is the smallest form of life.
2 types of cells
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
lack organelles and membrane enclosed nucleus but does contain DNA. Ex. bacteria, blue green algae (Kingdom Archaebacteria, Kingdom Eubacteria) TOUGH EXTERNAL WALLS. SMALLER THAN EUKARYOTIC CELLS.
HAS MEMBRANE ENCLOSED NUCLEUS AND ORGANELLES. Ex. amoeba, trees, mushrooms, humans (Kingdom Protistsa, Kingdom Plantae, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Anamalia. contains DNA in nucleus and organized into chromosomes. cytoplasm (blood of cell) surounds nucleus and contains organelles. cell walls for plants.
The continuity of life is based on DNA.
units of inheritance given from parent to offspring in a precise order.
adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine.
A feeling for organisms
enriches the study of life.
form fits function
the relationship between an organism's structure and how it works.
knowing a structure's function gives insights about
ecosystems dynamics include 2 major processes
nutrient cycling, energy flow
unity in diversity
1.5 million species identified and named. 260, 000 plants. 50,000 vertebrates. 750, 000 insects.
branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying organisms.
core theme of biology is
1859-Father of Evolution. "Descent with Modification-species change, the most recent species arose from a succession of ancestors though this process. a mechanism for evolutionary change is survival of the fittest or natural selection
a problem solving approach
1. Observe/State problem 2. Form hypothesis 3. Test hypothesis through experimentation 4. collect/analyze data 5. for a conclusion 6. report results.
comprehensive conceptual frameworks which are well supported by evidence and widely accepted in scientific community.
Biology is multi-disciplinary science
chem, physics, mathematics.
is for the sake of knowledge and not to solve problems
take the basic research and apply to a problem.
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