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Informatics Final Exam
Terms in this set (209)
Characters, numbers, or facts gathered for analysis and possibly later action.
Interpreted data, i.e., B/P readings.
Synthesis of information from several sources to produce a single concept.
Occurs when knowledge is used appropriately to manage and solve problems.
Healthcare settings are _______ _______.
Growth in knowledge is....
What do nurses detect to create new knowledge?
Collects clinical data.
Interprets clinical data and uses it to monitor patients, aids with decisions.
Compares data to current knowledge.
Amasses data to show patterns that can be interpreted using existing knowledge or used to create new knowledge.
It provides people with the right information at the right time.
What is good information management?
It creates systems that enable organizations to improve their performance through their staff.
What does knowledge management create?
The art and science of turning data into information.
The application of information science and technology to interpret and communicate medical data in its many forms.
Integrates science to manage and communicate data into the nursing practice. Facilitates the creation and gain of knowledge in order to support patients, nurses, and other providers.
Branch of medical informatics that studies the use of electronic information and communication to improve medical outcomes from the patient/consumer perspective.
The ability to know when information is needed as well as the skills to find, evaluate, and use this information effectively.
Entry level, the experienced nurse, the informatics nurse, and the informatics nurse specialist.
What are the informatics competencies?
- Possess basic computer skills.
- Access data easily.
- Support patient safety using technology.
- Recognizes the importance of informatics in nursing.
- Possess basic computer skills.
- Supports improvement of quality through IT.
- Use evidence based databases.
- Promote technology applications.
- Promote system improvements in conjunction with IT staff.
- Proficient with informatics applications.
- Fiscal management.
- Integration of multidisciplinary language of practice.
- Demonstrates critical thinking, decision-making, and system development.
- Helps in decision making.
Informatics Nurse Specialist
- More sophisticated level of understanding and skills.
- Conducts informatics research and generates informatics theory.
Push for patient safety, nursing shortage, EBP, genomics, cost-efficiency, research.
What are some of the forces driving IT?
Accurate patient ID, IT safeguards, E-prescribing, decision support software, smart technology.
What are some of the things driving the push for patient safety?
Proven interventions, driven by demands for greater quality, provides greater consistency in care.
What is EBP?
The study of genes and their functions with the subsequent ability to tailor treatments to the individual.
Support for work processes, improved records, decreased redundancy, increased convenience, improved data collection, improves documentation.
What are some benefits of informatics?
Will help clinicians develop the needed competencies, develop and implement information technology, and generate new knowledge.
What is the future of informatics?
Information processing electronic device that can be used to collect, manipulate, store, and process data and information.
Hardware, software, data, system usage rules, interfaces to support user interaction.
What is a computer compromised of?
Hardware are the _______ parts of the computer.
Allow the user or some sensing device to feed data into the computer.
Input devices, CPU, primary and peripheral hardware, output devices.
What are the main components of hardware?
Keyboard, mouse, touchscreen, microphone, sensors.
What are some examples of an input device?
Allow the user to view and possibly hear processed data.
Printers, speakers, monitor GUIs, disk drives, projectors, computer, tablet, PDA, phone screen.
What are some exampled of an output device?
The "brain" of the computer.
What is the CPU known as?
What is the main factor in computer speed and capability?
Arithmetic logic unit, memory types, and control unit.
What are the main components of the CPU?
Arithmetic Logic Unit
Executes numeric instructions.
ROM and RAM.
Manages instructions to other parts of the computer.
Read-only memory. Always present.
Random access memory. Temporary storage.
External Storage Device
Secondary storage retains data after the computer is turned off or in a medium separate from the computer.
Hard disk, USB, DVD's, Cloud drives.
What are some examples of an external storage device?
- Largest, most expensive type of computer.
- Preforms billions of instructions every second.
- Found in government and academic settings.
- Large computers.
- Capable of processing several million instructions per second.
- Support multiple organizational functions.
- Found in large hospitals and business.
- Scaled-down mainframe computer.
- Less expensive.
- Can support the needs of multiple users.
- Support network communications.
- May be found in healthcare settings.
- Individual use.
- Can be connected to other devices.
- Small, handheld computer with limited capability.
- Supports common software.
- Can store extensive reference materials.
- Can send and receive data electronically.
- Can store extensive reference materials.
- Advantage: Can be easily transported to the point of care.
A computer network that connects computers within a limited geographical region.
Larger more expansive system with more servers and a wider geographical region.
Thin Client Technology
System processing occurs on a server with minimal hardware requirements at the local level. Contains no hard drive.
The largest, best known network.
Private company networks that are protected from outside access.
Applies Internet technology to create a network outside the company system for use by customers or suppliers.
A set of instructions that communicates with the computer and tells it what to do. The programs, routines, and symbolic languages that control the functioning.
Manage all computer activities.
Designed to accomplish a particular task.
Help to manage the computer and its data.
Human Factors and Ergonomics
Related fields of cognitive engineering that investigate and study how to make interfaces more compatible with their human user within particular problem contexts.
fosters productivity; reducing operator fatigue
They recommend that the optimal environment ______ ______ by ______ ______ ______ and discomfort.
Helpdesk Staff and PC Specialists
- Typically the first resource.
- Most frequent contact with users.
- Handle problems that include hardware and software applications.
- triage problems that they cannot fix to other support staff.
- Provide patient care/related services.
- Show interest in "computer technology".
- Serve as a resource in the work area.
World Wide Web
The Internet and the Web are separate but ______.
When was the first email sent?
A government project.
What did the internet start as?
Which is used for email, the Internet or the Web?
Information travels over the Internet in a variety of languages known as...
Use of computers to transmit text messages to one or more persons with almost instant delivery.
Interactive, real-time, text discussion that may occur via computers, cell phones, or other mobile devices.
File Transfer (FTP)
A means to move files from one location to another over a network that is separate from e-mail.
These allow users access to databases, such as literature databases, through libraries or other organizations or via private subscription.
Allows users to access computer facilities from a separate location. Allows users to establish an account.
Eliminates phone tag, easy to prepare and send, time and data stamped.
What are the advantages of email?
Security concerns, improper use, malware contamination, spam, phishing.
What are the disadvantages of email?
What language does the Web use to transmit data?
Web pages are linked via...
A "retrieval" program that retrieves hypertext and hypermedia documents on the Web by using the HTTP or FTP.
Uniform Resource Locator
A string of characters similar to a postal address. Identifies the document's Web location and the type of server it resides on.
Software capabilities that enable to user to launch applications.
- Personal Web Page
- Online Encyclopedia
- Browser Favorites
- Software Apps
- Blogs and wikis
- Online bookmarks
- Online software
- Google Docs.
- Semantic Search
- Acts as a personal assistant.
- Distributed search
- Leverage intelligent agent capabilities.
Firewalls, limit access, isolate servers, heed security advisories, keep antivirus systems up to date, security patches.
How do you ensure security for websites and information.
Use of computer hardware and software to process data into information.
Clinical and Administrative
What are the two types of information systems?
Clinical Information Systems
- Directly support care.
- Individuals may be standalone.
- Indirectly support patient care.
- Individual systems may stand alone.
Clinical Information Systems
Support provider order entry, results retrieval, documentation, evidence-based practice, and decision support across distributed locations and by different disciplines.
Nursing Information System
Supports the use and documentation of nursing activities and provides tolls for managing the delivery of nursing care.
First Approach to NIS
- Based on traditional documents.
Standardized Nursing Languages
- Provide a common language for all nurses.
- Important to the development of the electronic health record.
- Measure nursing's contributions.
- Contribute to the body of nursing knowledge.
Second Approach to NIS
- Critical pathways which are often used for multidisciplinary documentation.
Order Entry Systems
- Orders entered into the computer are transmitted to the appropriate areas such as the pharmacy, laboratory, radiology, and social services.
- Computerized Provider Order Entry
- Implemented to improve quality of care.
Laboratory Information Systems
- Reduce errors, turnaround time, and the need for duplicate testing.
- Alerts providers of new results.
- Accept input from bedside devices.
- Allow direct order entry or accepts orders from other systems.
- Provides scheduling of diagnostic tests.
- Generates client instructions.
- Permits transcription of results.
- Provides picture archiving.
- Generates charges once procedures are done.
Process that allows the physician to enter a prescription which is then electronically sent to the pharmacy from computers, PDAs.
Physician Practice Management Systems
Features include capture of demographic and insurance data, etc... Might connect to hospital patient records or maintain separate patient records.
- ADT systems.
- Collect and store demographic and insurance data that are verified and updated at the time of each visit.
- Critical to operations to ensure correct patient ID.
Decision Support and Expert Systems
- Aid in and strengthen the selection of viable options using the information of an organization to facility decision making and overall efficiency.
- Improves quality, safety, and efficiency in patient care.
- Optimization of workflow.
- Benefits clinicians and patients.
The process of determining what an organization wants to be and how it will get there.
An organization's mission, scope, goals, and objectives.
What is strategic planning based off of?
A statement purpose by an organization.
Who will get what tasks done?
What does this organization want to achieve overall?
The mission statement.
What is an organization's goal based off of?
These must lead to the goal and must be completed in order to reach the goal.
By senior executives such as CEOs, CFOs, CIOs, CNIOs. Basically upper management.
Who usually leads strategic planning?
If a company does not take into account what their clients want their company will not be successful.
Why must end users be taken into account when strategically planning?
Those that work for the company, it includes employees as well as those who are members of the Board of Directors.
Those who are interested in the company whether it be clients, investors, competitors, the community, and regulatory agencies.
They both need to be looked at in order to achieve the goal and fulfill the mission.
Why must both the external and internal environments be looked at.
The process for the selection and implementation of an information system. The ongoing process of developing and maintaining an information system.
Needs Assessment, System Selection, System Implementation, and Maintenance
What are the four main phases of the life cycle?
This is important because it assesses the organization's current status in relation to where it needs to be.
Begins once the decision is made to purchase a new system.
it can be used to set goals related to their information needs that reflect the organization's purpose, scope of service, as well as customers.
What is the importance of the mission statement?
Request for Information
A brief document saying they would like to make a purchase. It asks the vendor about their company, installation, capabilities, and updates.
Request for Proposal
Formal document that describes system requirements. Very detailed. Solicits proposals. Responses are used to narrow the choices.
The environmental, organizational, and job factors that influence a person while in their work environment.
The study of the workplace; the process of designing and arranging workplaces so they benefit the people who use them.
How people design, implement, and interact with computer systems.
How a product can be used to achieve a goal.
Patients, providers, and computers.
What are the major components of HCI models?
Systematic, structured examinations of the effectiveness, efficiency, or satisfaction of any component of interactions in the HCI framework.
Develop a timeline, get to know the system, research what data is needed and how it is used.
What are the implementation tasks?
Schedule tasks, define the scope of each task, identify timelines and "go-live" data, and identify resources and constraints.
What are the kay parts of making a timeline?
Underestimation of time and resources, ongoing addition of more changes and more features, failure to consider costs for annual maintenance, etc...
What are some issues with implementation?
The uncontrolled, continuous growth in a project's scope.
Ongoing expansion or addition of new features in a product, especially in computer software.
Timing, location, and equipment.
What factors effect training?
The system is up and running and being used to collect/process data.
Who carries out system planning?
Implementation does not occur all at once but rather in waves.
FAQ, and 24/7 support schedule.
What are some important factors of system planning?
Involved in the entire process, strong leadership and communication skills, must be trained in management.
Informatics representative, clinical representatives, managers who understand day to day operations and how those processes might be improved.
Project leader, technical staff, hospital staff.
What does selection of the implementation committee include?
Analyzing user feedback, making appropriate changes to correct problems, a 24/7 Helpdesk should be available, update should be occurring and applied.
What does maintenance of the system entail?
Content, instructional interventions, delivery methods, creation or purchase of training materials, whether to use in-house trainers vs. outsourced trainers.
What does training usually determine?
Classroom based, active participation.
Short sessions are conducted during work; this type often runs into the problem of creating a convenient time.
This type of training is a mix of everything.
Scheduling, costs, trainers, technology, environment.
What are some issue associated with training?
A state of mind, freedom from intrusion, or control over the exposure of self or of personal information
A situation in which a relationship has been established and private information is shared with the expectation it will not be re-disclosed.
The right to choose the conditions and extent to which information and beliefs are shared and the right to ensure accuracy of information.
The protection of information against threats to its integrity, in adverting disclosure, or availability determines the survivability of a system.
Information System Security
Ongoing protection of both information housed on the system and the system itself from threats or disruption.
Client confidentiality, protection of information integrity, readily available information.
What are the goals of information system security?
Assessment, create an organizational plan, creating a "culture" of security, the establishment and enforcement of policies.
What are steps of security planning?
The process of determine whether someone is who they say they are.
Levels of Security
How secure information is. What exactly is protecting it? So an example is a fingerprint versus a simple password (information protected by a fingerprint is more secure than information protected by simple password).
Level of Access
Who has the ability to access the information? Does everyone have access to it or only a select few?
The process of combining a set of component subsystems to ensure they act together as a coordinated whole.
The ability of two systems to exchange data.
A computer program that tells two different systems how to exchange data.
API (Application Program Interface)
Allows one application to access another application in order to enable the exchange of messages or data.
Master Patient Index
Lists all identifiers that are assigned to a client in all the information systems in an enterprise.
Defines terms to ensure consistent understanding.
The development of a uniform definition in regard to terms and language. This allows for data to be exchanged smoothly and ensures semantic interoperability.
Clinical Data Repository
Collective data from all information systems are stored and managed here. Consistency is provided through mapping.
Electronic Medical Record
The "legal" record created in hospitals and ambulatory environments that is the source of data for the EHR.
Electronic Health Record
An electronic record of health-related information on an individual that conforms to nationally recognized interoperability standards.
Computerized Patient Record
Comprehensive lifetime record that includes all information from all specialties.
Secure, reliably access, records and manages episodic and longitudinal information, primary information source during care.
What are some EHR attributes?
Patient engagement, reducing racial disparities, improved efficiency, increased safety, coordination of care, measures to improve population health.
Define meaningful use.
Structured and controlled languages that have been developed according to terminology development guidelines and have been approved by an authoritative body.
An expression with a single unambiguous meaning. A concept can have one or more representations called synonyms.
Made up of letters, numbers or a combination of both.
A set of terms representing concepts in a field or domain.
An arrangement of concepts into one or more groups based on essential characteristics.
CCC, ICNP, NANDA, NIC, NOC, Omaha, PNDS.
What are the ANA recognized terminologies?
Used to categorize the details of the clinical encounter.
A set of concepts with definitional relationships. Frequently an ontology.
Facilitates interoperability in that concepts are organized by their concepts meaning that describes the definitional structure-relationship.
NANDA, NIC, NOC
What are some classification systems?
What are some reference terminologies?
Supports data mining, analyzing healthcare from different perspectives, and summarizing into useful information.
What are some benefits of using structured healthcare terminologies within EHRs?
Provides informal opportunities for networking via e-mail and social networking systems.
List ways computer technology can be used to support nursing education.
Virtual Learning Environments
The use of a computer to teach a subject other than computing.
Use of print, audio, computer, or teleconference capability to connect faculty and student located at a minimum of two different sites.
Course/Learning Management System (CLMS)
Systems that use the Internet to assist the educator in developing, managing, and administering educational materials for students.
Tracking capability, e-mail, chat, and discussion, 24-hours a day, flexibility.
What are the benefits of a CLMS?
24-hour accessibility and convenience, increased opportunities for students and faculty.
What are the benefits of distance learning?
What are benefits of a virtual learning environment?
Internet, books, journals, etc...
What are the sources of health information available to consumers?
The degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information.
Visual literacy, computer literacy, information literacy.
What factors are related to health literacy?
Online resources, more technology-based, e-patients, etc.
What are some ways health care informatics is changing?
Redness, pain, the skin may or may not be open, bone may be visible, dead tissue .
What are the characteristics of pressure wounds?
Hips, buttocks, heels, bony areas, shoulders, elbows.
Where are pressure wounds most likely to occur?
Infection, sepsis, cellulitis, etc.
What are the risk factors of a pressure wound?
Location, staging, drainage, color, wound edge, size and types of tissue exposed, wound measurement.
Describe the documentation of a pressure wound.
When you partition an image into meaningful regions with respect to a particular application.
Describe image segmentation.
Patient Engagement (Centric)
The involvement in their own care by individuals, with the goal that they make competent decisions about their health and health care.
An electronic personal health record "tethered" to an EHR.
Patient Engagement (Systemic)
A set of behaviors by patients, family members, and health professionals and a set of organizational policies and procedures that foster both the inclusion of patients and family members as active members of the health care team.
Changes in clinical workflow, redefinition or roles.
What are the main implications for patient portals?
Health Information Exchange
The electronic exchange of health-related data between healthcare organizations, clinicians, and/or patients.
The ability of a system to exchange electronic health information with and use electronic health information from other systems without special effort on the part of the user.
Sets with similar terms
WGU Information Management - C468
Informatics Chapters 1-10
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