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The Age of Nationalism
Terms in this set (58)
Napoleon's nephew. He was elected president after Louis Phillip reign, and his era was known as the Second Republic until he named himself emperor Napoleon III during the 2nd Empire of France. Used Napoleonic legend to win elections in 1848 to become France's first president under universal suffrage for men. Seized power in 1851 via coup d' état and became dictator of the second French empire. Discards constitution, taking France back to 1791. Leads period of economic growth: rebuilt Paris, extends French power overseas (Crimean War, war for Italian unification (which got some territory for France Nice and Savoy), Constructed Suez Canal between Mediterranean and the Red Sea. Losses thru involvement in mexico and Franco-Prussian war. Went into exile.
Government established in France from 1848-1852, After the 1848 revolution in France, which caused Louis-Philippe to flee, this government system was put in place by revolutionists and guaranteed universal male suffrage. Louis-Napoleon (later known as Napoleon III), nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, was overwhelmingly elected president, and France enjoyed a period of stability and prosperity. This government was later overthrown in yet another coup d'etat.
A political nationalist in Italy in the mid-1800's. He started a group called Young Italy that promoted independence from the Austrian and Spanish rule and the establishment of an Italian national state. By the mid-nineteenth century, Young Italy had inspired the development of nationalist movements in other countries besides Italy, such as Ireland, Switzerland, and Hungary.
Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
Prior to Italian unification, had a constitutional monarchy under King Victor Emmanuel II, and Prime Minister Camillo di Cavour. This country would be the main power and leader of the unification movement.
King Victor Emmanuel
The King of Piedmont-Sardinia that appointed Cavour his Prime Minister and worked to unite Italy.
Pius IX/Syllabus of Errors
A document by the pope in which he denounced nationalism, socialism, religious liberty, and separation of the church and state.
Count Camillo Cavour
Endorsed the economic doctrines of the middle class. Worked for a secret alliance with Napoleon III against Austria. Worked to unite Italy.
Italian patriot/radical whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882); Raised an army of a thousand volunteers - were called 'Red Shirts' because of their uniforms.
Nationalistic group/army created and led by Guiseppe Garibaldi to end foreign control of Italy during the 19th century.
The name of the free trade zone that German states created prior to their unification.
William I of Prussia
Prussian king who became emperor of Germany after the Franco-Prussian War; tried to enlarge the Prussian army appointed Otto von Bismarck
Count Otto von Bismarck
Prussian prime minister who determined the course of modern German history; guided Prussia's unification of Germany. Practitioner of "Realpolitik", largely ignored Parliament; engaged in an active foreign policy, waging war against Denmark, Austria, and France in order to create a unified German empire; used nationalism to win support his objectives.
"Blood and Iron"
Bismarck's idea of always preparing and waging war, and those things can only be done with war
provinces that were fought over between the Danes and the Germans
Also known as the Seven Weeks' War. This war was between Austria and Prussia, with Italy helping Prussia. It was over control of the German Confederation. Prussia won, and created the North German Confederation, of which Austria was not a part, and Italy received Venetia.
North German Confederation
First step in Bismarck's plan to unify Germany, waged war on France to get southern states to join
provoked so that nationalism would kick in and south Germany would join north Germany and unite
a rich, eastern province of France that the Germans take after the war, causes French to hate Germans
Caused by uneven power in Europe, competition over the Middle East and desire to expand into the Ottoman Empire.
forced into making social changes after the military disaster in the Ottoman Empire, abolished serfdom in Russia
Emancipation of the serfs
abolished by Alexander II in 1861, difficulties led to little success in the face of Russian culture
tough finance minister, Under his leadership, the government doubled the network of state-owned railways, established high protective tariffs to support Russian industry, and he put the country on the gold standard.
Politically reactionary czar who promoted economic modernization of Russia (1881-1894); hired witte
Russian Revolution of 1905
after Russian military lost war with Japan, peasants caused political reforms at home
tsar of Russia, responsible for Bloody Sunday
peaceful protestors presented a petition to Nicholas II troops opened fire and killing hundreds
granted full civil rights and promised a popularly elected Duma (or parliament) with real legislative power
Parliament of Germany, no real power
The Fundamental Laws
Laws that restrict the power of the Duma, restore power to tsar
Soldier and political leader, made Egypt powerful and attempted to take over Ottoman Empire
A set of reforms designed to remake the Ottoman Empire on a western European model.
patriots who seized power in a 1908 coup in the Ottoman Empire, forcing the conservative sultan to implement reforms
The popularly elected lower house of government of the new German Empire
Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church within Germany, resulting from Pius IX's declaration of papal infallibility.
Catholic Center Party
German political party that blocked the passage of laws hostile to the church, limited Kulturkampf success
German Social Democratic Party (SPD)
Germany's Marxist, working-class political party. believed in revolution and communism
Social welfare programs
invented to satisfy the liberals in Germany
Bismarck used an assassination attempt on the emperor (Wilhelm I) to enact this. Now there could be no socialist/communist meetings, censorship, no fundraising for candidate. Socialists were still elected to the Reichstag as independents.
wanted to rule in his own right and to earn support, fired Bismark
Paris Commune 1871
radical group who wanted to govern France without the interference of the conservative countryside
Government established in France from 1875-1945, French Republic started after the end of the Franco-Prussian War, which led to the demise of Napolean III, and survived until the invasion of the German third Reich. It was the longest regime from after the French Revolution.
led the Party of Movement, which favored ministerial responsibility & active foreign policy, limited expansion of the franchise during the reign of Louis-Philippe
Leader of the French Opportunists--moderate Republican famous for declaring a republic when Napoleon III was captured by Prussian forces. Helped lead defense of Paris in the Siege of Paris famously escaping in a hot air balloon. Prime Minister for just a few months because tried to amend constitution to create more power for executive; frightened opponents dub him a would be "Caesar."
Trial case that split France into two sides, army and Catholic church vs. the moderate liberals who wanted a fair case
Second Reform Bill 1867
Doubled the electorate and gave vote to many industrial workers
belief that an equal society can be achieved through participation in politics rather than violent revolution. It led to minimum wage right and social reform, also convinced socialists to reject the Marxist faith that violent revolution was inevitable
Third Reform Bill 1884
Give the right to vote to rural workers (agricultural workers).
A bill proposed after the Liberal Party came to power in England in 1906, it was designed to increase spending on social welfare services, but was initially vetoed in the House of Lords
David Lloyd George
Britain's prime minister at the end of World War I whose goal was to make the Germans pay for the other countries' staggering war losses
allows cities to write their own charters, choose their own type of government, and manage their own affairs
the partitioned part of Ireland that remains under British control
a group of nomadic people originating from Hungary; superb horsemen; attacked isolated villages and monasteries
Heinrich von Treitschke
Stated that "All great nations in the fullness of their strength have desire to set their mark upon barbarian lands and those who fail to participate in this great rivalry will play a pitiable role in time to come.
Arthur de Gobineau
A French, aristocratic writer who believed in racial determinism, and emphasized the importance of preserving the purity of the Aryan race.
Houston Stewart Chamberlain
A British write who advocated the supremacy of the "Aryan Race," a non existent genealogical characteristic that all white people shared. His works greatly influenced Hitler's socialist movement.
Prejudice against Jews
Austrian journalist and Zionist; formed World Zionist Organization in 1897; promoted Jewish migration to Palestine and formation of a Jewish state
A Jewish movement starting in the 1800s that resulted in the migration of Jews to Palestine and the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948.
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