Upgrade to remove ads
Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
SS Scientific Revolution & The Enlightenment Study Guide- Mr. Adams
Terms in this set (68)
Studied planetary motion for 25 years. Supported the heliocentric theory. Findings published in 1543- On the Revolutions of the heavenly bodies
concluded that certain mathematical laws governed movement (1601). concluded orbits were eliptical
voiced his support of copernicus in starry messenger (1610). Used a telescope. Found that Jupiter has 4 moons, sun has darks spots, and the moon had an uneven surface.
used mathematics and developed analytical geometry
published ideas in 1687- Principles of natural philosophy. Included the law of universal gravitation- explained the forces acting on everything- gravity. described the universe as a giant clock with God being the clockmaker
dissected human corpses in 1543 published on the structure of the human body filled with detailed drawings
Introduces a smallpox vaccine
pioneered the scientific method in chemistry - Published the Skeptical Chemist in 1661 - early ideas about atoms, Boyles' law- volume, temp, and pressure of gas
Englishman- wrote Leviathan (1651) had a negative view of humans, created the social contract- foundations of democracy
Englishman- Believed we had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property- Fundamental to the US Declaration of Independence
French. believed our rights were freedom of thought and expression, religious freedom. Impacted the US Bill of Rights, the French Declaration of Rights of man and citizens, monarchs reduce censorship
French(1748) on the spirit of laws- believed in separation of powers- Impacted France, US, and Latin American Constitutions
Switzerland (1762) believed in the social contract- comitted to individual freedom- Impacted the Bill of Rights, US Constuitution
English (1792) Wrote a Vindication of the Rights of Women- believed in women's equality- impacted women's rights groups in Europe and North America
Italian- Believed in abolishment of torture- Impacted the Bill of Rights, torture was outlawed
large set of books with various authors, (Encyclopedias) books were banned by the Catholic Church and the French Government
granted many freedoms, improved the justice system
Fredrick the Great
wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Firmly based on the ideas of the Enlightenment
a major change in European thought, starting in the mid-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs.
incorrectly placed the earth at the center of the solar system. This belief was held for the next 14 centuries
in the middle ages, the earth-centered view of the universe in which scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe
the idea that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun
an 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society
The agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government.
One of a group of social thinkers in France during the Enlightenment.
a social gathering of intellectuals and artists, like those held in the homes of wealthy women in Paris and other European cities during the Enlightenment
One of the 18th century European monarchs who was inspired by Enlightenment ideas to rule justly and respect the rights of subjects.
A statement of the reasons from the American colonies' break with Britain, approved by the Second Continental Congress in 1776.
Declaration of Independence
A system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and a number of individual states.
Why did the church oppose the Heliocentric theory?
Galileo's radical ideas frightened both Catholics and Protestants. These ideas challenged the church's authorities
the Scientific Revolution was a new way to think about the ______ world.
The Scientific Revolution was a revolution in ______.
Where did the Geocentric Theory come from? Who supported it?
Aristotle around the 4th century BC; Ptolemy supported the idea
According to the Church, why did God put the earth at the center of the Universe?
to Symbolize our importance
In what area do we see the first challenge in accepted thinking during the Scientific Revolution?
What does the scientific method use to gain useful info?
careful observation and experimentation. Based on logic and reason
What new ideas did Isaac Newton develop?
the law of universal gravitation - explained the forces acting on everything- gravity
How does Newton attempt to reconcile religion and science?
described the universe as a giant clock and God being the clock maker
Name 3 scientific instruments and describe their use
microscope- used to look at very small objects
barometer- measures the amount of pressure in the atmosphere
thermometer- tells what the temp is
How did our ideas about the human body change because of Andreas Vesalius? How are his developments helpful?
Many ideas about the human body came from the dissection of pigs. He published a book called "On the Structure of the Human body" included many detailed drawings
What did Edward Jenner do to advance medicine?
introduced the smallpox vaccine
What area of science did Robert Boyle apply the scientific method to?
What did the Enlightenment try to do with the ideas from the Scientific Revolution?
After the Scientific Revolution, Scholars began to reevaluate old ideas about society
What is another name for the Enlightenment?
The age of reason
The Enlightenment was a revolution in _____.
What things would the Enlightenment stress when trying to solve problems? How is this different that in previous times?
Reason and thought and the power of individuals were thought to solve problems. In previous times, problem solving was based on logic and reason
In what area would the first challenge to accepted thinking occur during the enlightenment?
What important idea about the power to govern did Thomas Hobbes propose?
The Government's power to rule comes from the people
What was Hobbes view of Human nature? How did John Locke's differ?
Hobbes thought people were naturally selfish and wicked. Locke believed that people could improve themselves.
What did John Locke believe that all people were entitled to? What could people do if the government was not protecting these liberties?
life liberty and property; they could overthrow the government
What are the 5 core concepts of the Philosophes?
Reason, Nature, Happiness, Progress, Liberty
What was the status of Women during the enlightenment?
Women were supposed to get and education to become a better wife and mother. Philosophes took a traditional view of women.
It is often said that the Philosophes lived in a world of ideas. Explain
They formed and popularized new theories, but were not active revolutionaries
What 2 revolutions would the enlightenment spur?
The American Revolution and the French Revolution
What new artistic style emerged during the enlightenment?
What 3 famous musicians were influential during the enlightenment?
Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig Van Bethoven
What is the importance of Diderot's Encyclopedia?
it helped enlightenment ideas spread to educated people all over europe
How did the Enlightenment affect some rulers in Europe?
Some embraced the new ideas of the philosophes and became known as enlightened despots.
How did American colonists justify breaking away from Great Britain?
They felt justified rebelling against a ruler who had broken the social contract
What enlightenment ideas can be seen in the Constitution?
rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
Factors leading to the scientific revolution
exploration, the invention of the printing press, the reformation, the renaissance
What was the lasting legacy of the Enlightenment
made people challenge long- held beliefs, have a more secular outlook, and believe in the importance of the individual.
Copernicus' ideas had to be backed up by _______ & _________.
data and math
________ supported Copernicus' ideas with the collection of data.
What was the time period of the enlightenment?
Who had over 70 published works and used satire in these works
_______ worked as a cleric for the church which is why he waited so long to publish his book.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
History Final: Unit 12~ The Scientific Revolution…
History Final: Unit 12~ The Scientific Revolution…
the science revolution
the science revolution
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Parenting Test- 3/7
Motions Part |