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AP world history chapter 3 terms

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untouchables
LOWEST LEVEL OF INDIAN SOCIETY; not considered a real part of the caste system; often given degrading jobs; their life was extremely difficult
ramayana
one of two classical Hindu epics telling of the banishment of Rama from his kingdom and the abduction of his wife by a demon and Rama's restoration to the throne
arthashastra
India's political how-to guide, Mauryan empire
gurus
brahmans who were teachers for the princes of the imperial court of the guptas
dharma
In Hindu belief, a person's religious and moral duties
upanishads
philosophical texts sacred to the hindu religion.
mandala
A religious symbol associated with meditation, usually created with geometric patterns and shapes
kamasutra
(Hinduism) an ancient Sanskrit text giving rules for sensuous and sensual pleasure and love and marriage in accordance with Hindu law
karma
In Hindu belief, all the actions that affect a person's fate in the next life
mahabharata
a great indian epic poem, reflecting the struggles of the aryans as they moved south into india
stupas
religious buildings that originally housed Buddha relics. Stupas developed into familiar Buddhist architecture
mauryas
The first great indian empire.
kushanas
dynasty that succeeded the Mauryas;
tamil
the name of a language and people group in southern india
reincarnation
belief that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death
nirvana
a condition of great peace or happiness
guptas
A dynasty that united the indian states after the Mauryan empire.
sanskrit
the most important language of ancient India
skanda gupta
Last of the able rulers of the Gupta dynasty; following his reign the empire dissolved under the pressure of nomadic invasions
buddha
founder of Buddhism
chandragupta maurya
king, founder of the Mauryan Empire
ashoka
grandson of Chandragupta Maurya; completed conquests of Indian subcontinent; converted to Buddhism and sponsored spread of new religion throughout his empire
kautilya
political advisor to Chandragupta Maurya; believed in scientific application of warfare
himalayas
The highest mountains in the world, which stretch along northern India, separating it from the rest of Asia.
vedas
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
varnas
The social divisions of the Aryan Society that included from top to bottom: 1)priests (Brahmins), 2) rulers or warriors; 3) farmers, craftspeople, traders; 4) workers and servants (Sudras)
jati
(Hinduism) a Hindu caste or distinctive social group of which there are thousands throughout India
indra
chief god of the Rig-Veda
brahma
A Hindu god considered the creator of the world.
yoga
a system of exercises practiced as part of the Hindu discipline to promote control of the body and mind