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a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular section of the skull. Was a treatment for severe abnormal behavior

Somatogenic perspective

abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes

Psychogenic perspective

chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological

Psychotropic medications

drugs that primarily affect the brain and alleviate many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning


the practice, begun in the 1960's, of releasing hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental hospitals

Private Psychotherapy

individual directly pays a therapist for counseling services

Positive psychology

study & enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abilities

managed care program

insurance company determines key issues as which therapists its clients may choose, the cost of sessions, and the # of sessions for which a client may be reimbursed

parity laws

direct insurance companies to provide equal coverage for mental and medical problems


perspectives used to explain events. each spells out the scientist's basic assumptions, gives order to the field under study, ad sets guidelines for its investigation

biological model

sees physical processes as key to human behavior

psychodynamic model

looks at people's unconscious internal processes and conflicts

behavior model

emphasizes behavior and the ways in which it is learned

cognitive model

concentrates on the thinking that underlies behavior

humanistic-existential model

stresses the role of values and choices

sociocultural model

looks to social and cultural forces as keys to human functioning

family-social perspective

focuses on an individual's family and social interaction; part of sociocultural model

multicultural perspective

emphasizes and individuals culture and the shared attitudes, beliefs, values, and history of that culture; part of sociocultural model

basal ganglia

planning and producing movement


emotion and memory


emotional memory

psychotropic medications

drugs that mainly affect emotions and thought processes

ego theorists

emphasize the role of the ego and consider it a more independent and powerful force than Freud did


emphasize the importance of developing and healthy self-interest and give the greatest attention to the role of the self

object relations theorists

propose that people are motivated mainly by a need to have relationships with others and that severe problems in the relationships between children and their caregivers may lead to abnormal development


an unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy


patient acts and feels toward the therapist as they did or do toward important persons in the lives

manifest content

consciously remembered dream

latent content

symbolic meaning of a dream

relational psychotherapy

argues that therapists are key figures in the lives of patients and therefore calls for therapists to disclose their own experiences and feelings in discussions with patients

operant conditioning

humans and animals learn to behave in certain ways as a result of receiving rewards

classical conditioning

a process of learning by temporal association in which 2 events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a person's mind to produce the same response

systematic treatment

a behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias learn to react calmly instead of with intense fear to the objects or situations they dread


believe that humans are born with a natural tendency to to be friendly, cooperative, & constructive


humans must have an accurate awareness of themselves and live meaningful lives in order to be psychologically well adjusted

gestalt therapy

humanistic therapy developed by Fritz Perls in which clinicians actively move clients toward self-recognition and self-acceptance by using techniques such as role playing and self-discovery exercises

existential therapy

a therapy that encourages clients to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and values

primary prevention

consists of efforts to improve community attitudes and policies

secondary prevention

consists of identifying and treating psychological disorders in the early stages, before they become serious

tertiary prevention

provides effective treatments as soon as they are needed so that moderate or severe disorders do not become long-term problems


people must first have biological, psychological, or sociocultural predisposition to develop a disorder and must then be subjected to episodes of severe stress

M'Naghen test

a widely used legal test for insanity that holds people to be insane at the time they committed a crime if, because of a mental disorder, they did not know the nature of the act or did not know right from wrong.

irresistable impulse test

a legal test for insanity that holds people to be insane at the time they committed a crime if they were driven to do so by an uncontrollable "fit of passion"

Durham test

a legal test for insanity that holds people to be insane at the time they committed a crime if their act was the result of a mental disorder or defect

American Law Institute Test

a legal test for insanity that holds people to be insane at the time they committed a crime if, because of a mental disorder, they did not know right from wrong or could not resist an uncontrollable impulse to act

guilty but mentally ill

a verdict stating that defendants are guilty of committing a crime but are also suffering from a mental illness that should be treated during their imprisonment

guilty with diminished capacity

a defendant's mental dysfunctioning is viewed as an extenuating circumstance that the court should take into consideration in determining the precise crime of which he or she is guilty

mental incompetence

a state of mental instability that leaves defendants unable to understand the legal charges and proceedings that they re facing and unable to prepare an adequate defense with their attorney

Jackson v Indiana

incompetent defendant cannot be indefinitely committed

Dusky v United States

defined the minimum standard of competence

civil commitment

a legal process by which an individual can be forced to undergo mental health treatment

parens patriae

state can make decisions that promote the patient's best interests and provide protection from self-harm, including a decision of involuntary hospitalization

police power

allows the state to take steps to protect society from a person who is violent or otherwise dangerous

Addington v Texas

outlined minimum standard of proof needed for commitment

Robinson v California

imprisoning people who suffer from drug addictions might violate Constitution's ban on cruel and unusual punishment; recommended involuntary civil commitment

Wyatt v Stickney

state was constitutionally obligated to provide adequate treatment to all people who had been committed involuntarily

O'Connor v Donaldson

state can't continue to institutionalize people against their will if they are not dangerous and are capable of surviving on their own or with the willing help of responsible family members or friends

Youngberg v Romeo

people committed involuntarily have a right to reasonably nonrestrictive confinement conditions as well as reasonable care and safety

Tarasoff ruling

ruled that therapists should break confidentiality when it is necessary to protect the client or others from harm

managed care programs

an insurance program in which the insurance company decides the cost, method, provider, and length of treatment

peer review system

a system by which clinicians paid by an insurance company may periodically review a patient's progress and recommend the continuation or termination of insurance benefits


took over responsibility for community mental health services and the state mental hospital programs formerly under tdmhmr. also, alcohol and drug abuse services formerly under the jurisdiction of the commission and alcohol and drug abuse and the health programs formerly under the jurisdiction of the texas department of health are housed under dshs authority.


consolidated the mental retardation services and state school programs from tdmhmr. dads is also responsible for various nursing care facilities and other aging services programs of the department of aging

protection and advocacy for mentally ill individuals act

protection and advocacy systems in all abuse & neglect (1986)


started movement toward moral treatment

yellow bile

caused mania

black bile

caused melancholia


linked to excessive activity of dopamine


linked to low activity of serotonin & norepinephrine

dynamic focus

a single problem to work on in psychodynamic therapy


consumer designation of biological model


consumer designation of psychodynamic model


consumer designation of behavioral model


consumer designation of cognitive model

patient or client

consumers of humanistic/existential models


consumer designation of family-social model


consumer designation of multicultural model


therapist role of biological model


therapist role of psychodynamic model


therapist role of behavioral model


therapist role of cognitive model


therapist role of humanistic model


therapist role of existential model

family/social facilitator

therapist role of family-social model

cultural advocate/teacher

therapist role of multicultural model

evil spirits

prehistoric societies view of what caused abnormal behaviors


greeks & romans view of cause of abnormal behaviors

evil spirits

middle ages view of cause of abnormal behaviors


treatment for mentally ill during Renaissance

Foucha v Louisiana

only acceptable basis for determining the release of hospitalized offenders is whether or not they are still insane

Olmstead v LC et al

patients released from state mental hospitals have a right to aftercare and to an appropriate community residence

Dixon v Weinberger

people with psychological disorders should receive treatment in the least restrictive facility available


# of state mental hospitals


# of state schools


# of state community health centers


# of state schools operated by Texas Youth Commission


# of halfway houses operated by Texas Youth Commission


emphasizes scientist-practitioner model


emphasizes scholar-professional model


# of PsyD programs in US

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