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100 terms

Abnormal Psych 1

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Trephination
a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular section of the skull. Was a treatment for severe abnormal behavior
Somatogenic perspective
abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes
Psychogenic perspective
chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological
Psychotropic medications
drugs that primarily affect the brain and alleviate many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning
Deinstitutionalization
the practice, begun in the 1960's, of releasing hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental hospitals
Private Psychotherapy
individual directly pays a therapist for counseling services
Positive psychology
study & enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abilities
managed care program
insurance company determines key issues as which therapists its clients may choose, the cost of sessions, and the # of sessions for which a client may be reimbursed
parity laws
direct insurance companies to provide equal coverage for mental and medical problems
models
perspectives used to explain events. each spells out the scientist's basic assumptions, gives order to the field under study, ad sets guidelines for its investigation
biological model
sees physical processes as key to human behavior
psychodynamic model
looks at people's unconscious internal processes and conflicts
behavior model
emphasizes behavior and the ways in which it is learned
cognitive model
concentrates on the thinking that underlies behavior
humanistic-existential model
stresses the role of values and choices
sociocultural model
looks to social and cultural forces as keys to human functioning
family-social perspective
focuses on an individual's family and social interaction; part of sociocultural model
multicultural perspective
emphasizes and individuals culture and the shared attitudes, beliefs, values, and history of that culture; part of sociocultural model
basal ganglia
planning and producing movement
hippocampus
emotion and memory
amygdala
emotional memory
psychotropic medications
drugs that mainly affect emotions and thought processes
ego theorists
emphasize the role of the ego and consider it a more independent and powerful force than Freud did
self-theorists
emphasize the importance of developing and healthy self-interest and give the greatest attention to the role of the self
object relations theorists
propose that people are motivated mainly by a need to have relationships with others and that severe problems in the relationships between children and their caregivers may lead to abnormal development
resistance
an unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy
transference
patient acts and feels toward the therapist as they did or do toward important persons in the lives
manifest content
consciously remembered dream
latent content
symbolic meaning of a dream
relational psychotherapy
argues that therapists are key figures in the lives of patients and therefore calls for therapists to disclose their own experiences and feelings in discussions with patients
operant conditioning
humans and animals learn to behave in certain ways as a result of receiving rewards
classical conditioning
a process of learning by temporal association in which 2 events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a person's mind to produce the same response
systematic treatment
a behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias learn to react calmly instead of with intense fear to the objects or situations they dread
humanists
believe that humans are born with a natural tendency to to be friendly, cooperative, & constructive
existentialists
humans must have an accurate awareness of themselves and live meaningful lives in order to be psychologically well adjusted
gestalt therapy
humanistic therapy developed by Fritz Perls in which clinicians actively move clients toward self-recognition and self-acceptance by using techniques such as role playing and self-discovery exercises
existential therapy
a therapy that encourages clients to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and values
primary prevention
consists of efforts to improve community attitudes and policies
secondary prevention
consists of identifying and treating psychological disorders in the early stages, before they become serious
tertiary prevention
provides effective treatments as soon as they are needed so that moderate or severe disorders do not become long-term problems
diathesis
people must first have biological, psychological, or sociocultural predisposition to develop a disorder and must then be subjected to episodes of severe stress
M'Naghen test
a widely used legal test for insanity that holds people to be insane at the time they committed a crime if, because of a mental disorder, they did not know the nature of the act or did not know right from wrong.
irresistable impulse test
a legal test for insanity that holds people to be insane at the time they committed a crime if they were driven to do so by an uncontrollable "fit of passion"
Durham test
a legal test for insanity that holds people to be insane at the time they committed a crime if their act was the result of a mental disorder or defect
American Law Institute Test
a legal test for insanity that holds people to be insane at the time they committed a crime if, because of a mental disorder, they did not know right from wrong or could not resist an uncontrollable impulse to act
guilty but mentally ill
a verdict stating that defendants are guilty of committing a crime but are also suffering from a mental illness that should be treated during their imprisonment
guilty with diminished capacity
a defendant's mental dysfunctioning is viewed as an extenuating circumstance that the court should take into consideration in determining the precise crime of which he or she is guilty
mental incompetence
a state of mental instability that leaves defendants unable to understand the legal charges and proceedings that they re facing and unable to prepare an adequate defense with their attorney
Jackson v Indiana
incompetent defendant cannot be indefinitely committed
Dusky v United States
defined the minimum standard of competence
civil commitment
a legal process by which an individual can be forced to undergo mental health treatment
parens patriae
state can make decisions that promote the patient's best interests and provide protection from self-harm, including a decision of involuntary hospitalization
police power
allows the state to take steps to protect society from a person who is violent or otherwise dangerous
Addington v Texas
outlined minimum standard of proof needed for commitment
Robinson v California
imprisoning people who suffer from drug addictions might violate Constitution's ban on cruel and unusual punishment; recommended involuntary civil commitment
Wyatt v Stickney
state was constitutionally obligated to provide adequate treatment to all people who had been committed involuntarily
O'Connor v Donaldson
state can't continue to institutionalize people against their will if they are not dangerous and are capable of surviving on their own or with the willing help of responsible family members or friends
Youngberg v Romeo
people committed involuntarily have a right to reasonably nonrestrictive confinement conditions as well as reasonable care and safety
Tarasoff ruling
ruled that therapists should break confidentiality when it is necessary to protect the client or others from harm
managed care programs
an insurance program in which the insurance company decides the cost, method, provider, and length of treatment
peer review system
a system by which clinicians paid by an insurance company may periodically review a patient's progress and recommend the continuation or termination of insurance benefits
DSHS
took over responsibility for community mental health services and the state mental hospital programs formerly under tdmhmr. also, alcohol and drug abuse services formerly under the jurisdiction of the commission and alcohol and drug abuse and the health programs formerly under the jurisdiction of the texas department of health are housed under dshs authority.
DADS
consolidated the mental retardation services and state school programs from tdmhmr. dads is also responsible for various nursing care facilities and other aging services programs of the department of aging
protection and advocacy for mentally ill individuals act
protection and advocacy systems in all states......no abuse & neglect (1986)
Pinel
started movement toward moral treatment
yellow bile
caused mania
black bile
caused melancholia
schizophrenia
linked to excessive activity of dopamine
depression
linked to low activity of serotonin & norepinephrine
dynamic focus
a single problem to work on in psychodynamic therapy
patient
consumer designation of biological model
patient
consumer designation of psychodynamic model
client
consumer designation of behavioral model
client
consumer designation of cognitive model
patient or client
consumers of humanistic/existential models
client
consumer designation of family-social model
client
consumer designation of multicultural model
doctor
therapist role of biological model
interpreter
therapist role of psychodynamic model
teacher
therapist role of behavioral model
persuader
therapist role of cognitive model
observer
therapist role of humanistic model
collaborator
therapist role of existential model
family/social facilitator
therapist role of family-social model
cultural advocate/teacher
therapist role of multicultural model
evil spirits
prehistoric societies view of what caused abnormal behaviors
humors
greeks & romans view of cause of abnormal behaviors
evil spirits
middle ages view of cause of abnormal behaviors
asylums
treatment for mentally ill during Renaissance
Foucha v Louisiana
only acceptable basis for determining the release of hospitalized offenders is whether or not they are still insane
Olmstead v LC et al
patients released from state mental hospitals have a right to aftercare and to an appropriate community residence
Dixon v Weinberger
people with psychological disorders should receive treatment in the least restrictive facility available
8
# of state mental hospitals
11
# of state schools
41
# of state community health centers
8
# of state schools operated by Texas Youth Commission
9
# of halfway houses operated by Texas Youth Commission
Boulder
emphasizes scientist-practitioner model
Vail
emphasizes scholar-professional model
30
# of PsyD programs in US