Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro
hijo de hidalgos castilianos
(born Oct. 8, 1676, Casdemiro, Spain—
He began studying philosophy at the Real Colegio de San Esteban de Ribas de Sil,
salamanca and eventuallyEn 1709 pasó al convento de San Vicente de Oviedo, en cuya universidad ocupó las cátedras de Teología y Sagrada Escritura y donde vivió hasta su muerte a los ochenta y ocho años
-BECAME A BENEdictine monk
EL TRABAJO DE SU VIDA
died Sept. 26, 1764, Oviedo), teacher and essayist
he obtained his doctorate from the University of San Vicente in Oviedo
he taught philosophy and theology at the University of Oviedo.
-solamente un viaje a madrid pero obsesion con exterior por divulgación científica, correspondencia con amigos cultos de oviedo, y tertulia
Feijoo's two greatest works are Teatro crítico universal (1727-39and the Cartas eruditas (1742-60).
(A) essays that refute errors and superstitions of the times, (B) essays that divulge scientific information, and (C) essays with a philosophical content. Within these categories there are ten major classifications of essays:natural science, education, law, medicine, philology, and popular beliefs or superstitions.
not innovator but divulger of news and enlightenment ideas, thinker
contributing significantly to Spain's intellectual emancipation
CREYENCIAS Y METAS
AGAINSG T deducir de afirmaciones de determinados libros o autores, en especial, la Biblia. Aristóteles, Santo Tomás, etc. -aristotle was truth based on speclative reasoning
Aprobación apologética del escepticismo médico. This book was based on two basic premises: scholasticism is not heresy; and, scholastic doctrine as it is taught and practiced in Spanish Universities and other teaching centers is useless
Hombre de un profundo espíritu religioso, se esforzó por liberar la religiosidad de su época de toda la carga supersticiosa y milagrera que pudiera alejarla de los hombres cultivados.
assailed error, prejudice, and superstition
The aim of Feijoo was spelled out in the title, trying to correct old superstitions, prejudices and customs, a question that had already been made by European authors such as Thomas Browne in England and Christian Thomasius in Germany. Feijoo appears as a figure defending the experimental method in science, is moderately skeptical in matters relating to hagiography, but without even raising any doubt about the Catholic dogma, and emphasizes, in general, for its remarkable, though for some, superficial erudition , b in the study of literary, aesthetic and philological issues.
el efecto inmediato y legacy de su WRITING
In the eighteenth century his works were considered a revelation bordering on revolution because his writing was free of the prevailing religious dogma found in Spanish society and because he chose to write on a variety of themes using the form of a discussion. His essays are amply documented in a firm and sure tone that was based on reason and experience.
,wherever he found them, This work was one of the most exalted of his century, and also one of the most criticized and attacked by his contemporaries
), (20 editions, 3000 copies witinn 1726 and 1787
clara, a veces humor, narrativa para un gran audience, accessble
Feijoo wrote in a serious tone and rigorously employed scientific examination. Due to his criticism, many universities adopted new and better methods of teaching medicine, physics and logic.
-,Feijoo's landmark essay sparked a heated debate on the nature of women that continued well into the 1730s.Published in the first volume of Feijoo's eight-volume compendium Teatro crítico universal (1726-1740), the Defense questioned the long-standing view of women as inferior creatures whose nature dictated their lowly station
-at least 21 direct responses found to his work by scholars
-persians named the baby of a widowed queen king ridiculous fear of female power
"the work of generation always intends a male, and only by error or defect in either matter or faculty produces a female" no tonly until later in 1800th century did scientists condtend that men and women were two different sexes rather than pefect and imperfect forms of the same sex
-how can anyoen say mistake when rely on both sexes for propagation and more femalesthan males then THAT many mistakes and why if the parents are healthy
aristotle had diatribes against women
-mental giants like descartes, newton, rousseau
-querelle des femmes
-gradually womenaccepted as rational beings and slowly incoproated into the tertulias
-uses historical examplesfabled semiramis in ethiopia t ojudea and spain isabel better magnamitiy than ferdinands apprehensions and indolence
-not balck and white; said women could be reles toobutthat dosen't mean men can't; existence of immoral women he doesn ot deny but says he refuses to believe that morally inferior
-women derived from the Bible and the writings of early church fathers. As this existing paradigm explained, women, the descendents of Eve,were at once manipulative and sinful,gullible and frail.While some authors would challenge this notion of women as evil and weak, it would remain the dominant gender ideology in Spain into the 1700s; peopple talke dbout it but mostly thereticl before feijoo
-Women's enclosure in either convents or marriage was considered essential to uphold their virginity or virtue and thus, by extension, the honor and reputation of their male relatives
-n,controlling women's reproductive bodies was of critical social importance
-no divorce, abortion
"An unmarried young woman should rarely appear in public,since she has no business there and her most precious possession, her chastity, is placed in jeopardy
-e;she must dress appropriately,covering her face in public; she must not allow any man into her house without her husband's permission.While a wife's obedience and dedication to her spouse determined her honor,a husband's honor stemmed from his ability to control his wife and ensure she remained virtuous
-ack of education rarely worked no vote
domestic sphere after industrial revolution
-. One of the earliest critiques in Spain of the portrait of women as weak and wicked came in Enrique de Villena's 1417 Doce trabajos de Hércules.
- Similarly, Juan Rodríguez del Padrón's 1443 Triunfo de las donas elucidates women's strengths and argues for female superiority.
-queen isabella; h,Isabel took matters into her own hands and staged an acclamation ceremony—without Ferdinand—proclaiming herself the rightful ruler of Castile