30 terms

Chapter 2 Friedland Modified to 30

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Radioactive decay
The spontaneous release of material from the nucleus
Half-life
The time it takes for one-half of the original radioactive parent atoms to decay.
Surface tension
Results from the cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water and creates a sort of skin on the water's surface.
Capillary action
When the adhesion of water molecules to a surface is stronger than cohesion between the molecules. (for example, the absorption of water by a paper towel)
Law of Conservation of Matter
Matter cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change form.
Inorganic compounds
Compounds that either a) do not contain the element carbon or b) do contain carbon, but only carbon bound to elements other than hydrogen (for example, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide)
Organic compounds
compounds that have carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds (for example, glucose and natural gas)
Nucleic acids
Organic compounds found in all living cells (DNA, RNA)
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Genetic material that organisms pass on to their offspring that contains the code for reproducing the components of the next generation.
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
Translates the code stored in the DNA and allows for the synthesis of proteins.
Electromagnetic Radiation
A form of energy emitted by the sun that includes, but is not limited to, visible light, ultraviolet light, and infrared energy, which we perceive as heat
Power
The rate at which work is done
energy=power X time
power= energy/time
Potential energy
Energy that is stored but has not yet been released
Kinetic energy
The energy of motion
Temperature
The measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance
First Law of Thermodynamics
"Just as matter can neither be created nor destroyed, energy is neither created nor destroyed."
Second Law of Thermodynamics
"When energy is transformed, the quantity of energy remains the same, but its ability to do work diminishes."
Energy efficiency
The ratio of the amount of work that is done to the total amount of energy that is introduced into the system in the first place
energy quality
The ease with which an energy source can be used for work
entropy
All systems move toward randomness rather than toward order; this randomness is known as entropy
open system
Exchanges of matter or energy occur across system boundaries.
Closed system
Matter and energy exchanges across system boundaries do not occur
Inputs
Addition to a given system
Outputs
Losses from a given system
Systems analysis
A study in which the inputs, outputs, and changes in a system under various conditions are determined
Steady state
When inputs equal outputs so that the system is not changing over time
Feedback
The results of a process feed back into the system to change the rate of that process
Negative feedback loops
When a system responds to a change by returning to its original state or at least by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring
Positive feedback loops
e.g, The more members of a species that can reproduce, the more births there will be, creating even more of the species to give birth, and so on.
Adaptive management plan
A strategy that provides flexibility so that managers can modify it as future changes occur