Seneca Falls Convention
First women's right's convention in US - led by Elizabeth Stantonand and Lucretia Mott
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
John C Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
Political who debated Lincoln prior to 1860 election - advocated annexation of Mexico and strong supporter for Compromise of 1850
Passed in 1851 - first big step in the Temperance Movement - outlawed sale of alcohol except for medical purposes
Executive order that ended slavery in the states in rebellion (confederate states)
Critic of Slavery in the South - published The Impending Crisis of the South - said slavery hurt the economic growth of non-slave holders and the growth of the Southern region
The Impending Crisis of the South
Book dedicated to the Non-slave holders of the South - by Hinton Helper
Dred Scott v Sanford
Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens
and that Mexico ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo in 1848. This territory included California, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Texas, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. The addition of so much land to the United States exacerbated conflict over the expansion of slavery because some Northerners feared that the extension of slavery into California and New Mexico would deter free laborers from settling there
Treaty of Huadalupe-Hidalgo
Ended Mexican War - US received Texas (with Rio Grande border) and other states - US paid Mexico $15 million dollars
Sent by Polk to Mexico to negotiate Texas independence and purchase of California and New Mexico - was ignored by Mexican Government
Compromise of 1850
Devised by Clay - California was free state, stricter Fugitive Slave Law, ended Slave Trade in DC
The Gadsden Purchase was the 1853 treaty in which the United States bought from Mexico parts of what is now southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. Southerners wanted this land in order to build southern transcontinental railroad. The heated debate over this issue in the Senate demonstrates the prevalence of sectional disagreement.
Union soldiers boarded British ship The Trent and removed Mason and Slidell - were interned in Boston and released by Lincoln
Missouri border ruffians crossed into the Kansas to vote against slavery (led by John Brown) - severely divided the fledgling state
Secretary of Massachusetts Board of Education - created public school system in MASS - became model for nation
New types of literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England - middle 1800s - Ralph Waldo Emmerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margret Fuller
Settled border dispute between Maine and New Brunswick - very popular treaty in US because they got more than half of the territory
Seven debates between Lincoln and Douglass before election of 1860 - mostly over issues of slavery
Stated that exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property
James K. Polk
Polk was a slave owning southerner dedicated to Democratic party. In 1844, he was a "dark horse" candidate for president, and he won the election. Polk favored American expansion, especially advocating the annexation of Texas, California, and Oregon. He was a friend and follower of Andrew Jackson. He opposed Clay's American System, instead advocating lower tariff, separation the treasury and the federal government from the banking system. He was a nationalist who believed in Manifest Destiny.
1862 - provided free land in the west as long as the person would settle there and make improvements in five years
Independent Treasury Plan
Idea that federal government should have its own treasury; never put into practice.
Meeting twice in 1850, its purpose was to protect the slave property in the South.
claiming that the formation of the nation was through a compact by all of the states individually and that the national government is consequently a creation of the states
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Worcester v Georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it
Charles River Bridge Case
case settled a dispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract
Cult of Domesticity
Belief in Middle and Upper Classes in US and Britain - women embodied perfect virtues in all senses
Demoracy in America
book by Aleix DeTocqueville - explored the effects of the rising equality of social conditions on the individual and the state in western societies
Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. It helped to crystalize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed the settlers to decide whether or not to have slavery within those territories
Issued by Jackson - attempt to stop states from speculating land with money they printed that was not backed by anything - required land speculation in specie
1860 - attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden - offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by Republicans
pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union - rejected
1850 - Treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to a canal across the Isthmus of Panama
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
1856 - Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him.