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Rhetoric Appeals & Logical Fallacies
Terms in this set (49)
Appeal to ethics; credibility, reliability and authority
Rachel Ray giving a chicken Marsala recipe
Appeal to logic; facts, statistics, examples, reasoning
8 out of 10 dentists prefer Colgate
Appeal to emotion; fear, pride, guilt, patriotism, love/sex
UNICEF (animal shelter) Commercials
Urgency or lack of time
Only the first 50 callers will receive...
Beautiful women will like you if you use this cologne; Carl's Jr Commercials
An error in reasoning; trying to argue a point with incorrect or invalid reasons; usually subtle, tricky to realize
Making a claim with inadequate evidence
Hasty Generalization Example
Jumping to conclusions
Sweeping Generalization (No exceptions)
Statements that involve absolute words (all, always, never, no one) or allow for no exclusions aka stereotypes
Sweeping Generalization Example
All women are emotional; All teens are lazy.
Syllogism / Deductive Reasoning
Starts with generalization, then applied to specific case; takes two overlapping things that are true and creates a new premise based on them; if a is true & b is true, than c must be true.
Syllogism / Deductive Reasoning Example
Blondes are dumb. You are blonde. -> You must be dumb.
Either or Fallacy (aka Black or White / All or Nothing)
Only presents 2 options; no alternatives
Either or Fallacy Example
You must read everyday or you will forget how to read.
If something is repeated enough it becomes the truth
Jingles (Shane Co.; Lener & Rowe)
Implies that two things that share some characteristics are alike in all aspects; a weak connection, unrelated
False Analogy Example
If we put humans on the moon, we could find a cure for the common cold.
Circular Reasoning (aka Begging the Question)
Restating something in different words instead of applying evidence; argument makes a "circle"
Circular Reasoning Example
Why is Phoenix a big city? Because we have so many people. Why do we have so many people? Because we're one of the largest cities.
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (After this, therefore, because of this)
Assumes that because one thing happens after another, the first one caused the second one
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc Example
It rained on my walk to school. I failed my test. I must've failed because of the rain.
Linking two or more ideas that have no logical connection or a conclusion that is based on irrelevant date
She uses a wheelchair, so she must be unhappy.
Single Cause Fallacy
Showing that something that has many causes only has one cause
Single Cause Fallacy Example
We banned prayer in public schools and now we have more school violence than ever.
Transferring/moving an audience's feelings about one thing to another (unrelated) thing
Playing a popular bands song in the background of a commercial. "Buy our product, we like One Direction too!"
Sharing a personal story
Personal story that is not accurate or is by an unqualified person; faulty authority
Unreliable Testimonial Example
"Experts claim..." Research proves chocolate causes acne.
Appeal to Celebrity/Authority
Appeal to irrelevant authority, that is, an "authority" who is not an authority in the field of question / Linked to Unreliable Testimony
Appeal to Celebrity/Authority Example
Famous people in commercials
Ad Hominem ("Come at me bro")
Attacking the qualities of people holding the view rather than the view itself
Ad Hominem Example
Bill Clinton had an affair, so his views on global policy shouldn't have attention.
Belief that something is right just because many other people do/believe it; popularity
Everyone has an iPhone, I need an iPhone too.
Something that only a select few do; opposite of Bandwagon
Snob Appeal Example
Only our most premier customers purchase this product
Introducing an irrelevant issues intended to distract the audience from relevant issues
Red Herring Example
Donald Trump's "Locker Room Talk" / Hilary Clintons email "scandal"
Slippery Slope (aka Snowball Effect or Domino Theory)
Chain reaction of cause-effect events; inevitable; if one step is taken, it will lead to negative, unavoidable events
Slippery Slope Example
Gateway drugs / "That escalated quickly."
This set is often in folders with...
Vocabulary for ELA
ELA 50 words
Semester 1 Vocab
Logical Fallacies LA
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