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71 terms

Chemistry Unit #1A

test thursday!
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chemistry
the scientific study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergoes and the energy associated with it
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space (has mass and volume)
element
a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means; all atoms of this have the same atomic number
atom
the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical properties of that element
periodic table
an arrangement of the elements in order of the atomic numbers (# of protons) such that elements with similar properties fall in the same column, or group
group
a vertical column of elements in the periodic table; the elements in it share chemical properties
period
in chemistry, a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
organic, inorganic, physical, analytical, biochemistry, theoretical
Name 6 branches of chemistry.
organic chemistry
this branch of chemistry studies carbon-containing compounds
inorganic chemistry
this branch of chemistry studies non-organic substances; often organic substances bonded to metals
physical chemistry
this branch of chemistry studies the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy
analytical chemistry
this branch of chemistry involves the identification of components and the composition of materials
biochemistry
this branch of chemistry studies substances and processes occurring in living things
theoretical chemistry
this branch of chemistry uses math and computers to understand principles behind the observed chemical behavior and to design and predict properties of new compounds
metals
___ are good conductors of heat and electricity
metals
Most ___ are solids
metals
Most ___ have high density and a high melting point
metals
___ are malleable
malleability
_____ is the ability to be hammered and flattened into a sheet
metals
_____ are ductile.
ductility
____ is the ability to be drawn into a wire.
metals
___ have high tensile strength
hard to break
materials with high tensile strength are ___ __ ____
metals
___ have high luster
metals
____ are mostly grey-silver colored
nonmetals
____ do not conduct heat/electricity
nonmetals
___ are not malleable. They are brittle.
bromine
the only liquid nonmetal is ____.
metalloids
____ are semi-conductors of heat/electricity.
hydrogen, alkali metals
Group 1 consists of __ and the ____.
alkaline earth metals
Group 2 consists of the __________.
halogens
Group 17 consists of the ______.
noble gases
Group 18 consists of the __________.
alkali metals
The _____ are the most reactive elements.
noble gases
The ____ are the least reactive elements.
transition metals
Groups 3-12 are the _________.
13-16
Groups ___-____ are called by the name of the element at the top of their column.
wavelength
the distance from one point of a wave to the same locale of the next wave
lambda
What is the symbol for wavelength called?
frequency
the number of waves that pass a specific point during a specified time period (per second, usually)
nu
What is the symbol for frequency called?
electromagnetic radiation
a form of energy that travels in a wave-like form at the speed of light
visible light, microwaves, radiowaves, x-rays
Name four examples of electromagnetic radiation.
electromagnetic spectrum
a chart that displays all possible combinations of wavelengths and frequencies for electromagnetic radiation
low
Long wavelength results in ___ frequency
high
Short wavelength results in ___ frequency
spectroscope
this tool separates light into its component colors
prisms
Original spectroscopes used ___ and a tube with a slit
Bunson
who developed the spectroscope?
diffraction grating
This is a thin sheet of plastic with thousands of tiny grooves on the surface. It replaced the prism in spectroscopes.
continuous spectrum
It is called a ______ when all the colors are blended and present.
emission-line spectrum
a fingerprint for a specific element is called a(n) _________. It is the specific color(s) of light given off by a specific element.
wavelength X frequency
For all waves, velocity = _____ X _____
speed of light
For electromagnetic radiation, velocity = ______
Planck's constant X frequency
To find the energy of a photon, energy = ____ X ______
Joules (J)
What is the unit for energy?
triads
Groups of three elements are called ____.
Johann Dobereiner
Who put the elements into groups of three?
mass of the middle element
The masses of the smallest and biggest element in each triad averaged to be the ___ __ ___ ____ _____.
Stanislao Cannizzaro
Who proposed a method for finding and reporting elements' atomic masses systematically?
John Newlands
Who proposed the "law of octaves"?
law of octaves
The system of arranging elements in seven rows of seven elements, in increasing atomic mass order, with the 1st and 8th elements having similar properties, was called the ________.
Dmitri Mendeleev, Lothar Meyer
Which two men made the periodic law?
periodic law
The former ____ ___ says that physical and chemical properties are a periodic function of the element's atomic mass.
Mendeleev
Who left gaps in his periodic table for elements that weren't invented yet?
Sir William Ramsay, John Strutt
Which two men worked together and found Argon and most of the other noble gases?
Henry Moseley
Who organized the periodic table by atomic law?
periodic law
The modern ____ ____ says that physical and chemicals properties are a periodic function of the element's atomic number.
International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry
What does IUPAC stand for?
number, mass
The modern atomic law says atomic ___ rather than atomic ____.
masses, chemical symbols, names
IUPAC reports agreed upon ____, ____, and _____.