Chemistry Unit 4

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Terms in this set (...)

stock nomenclature
a system for naming inorganic binary compounds that uses a Roman numeral to indicate the oxidation state of the first element in the compound
activity series
a list that ranks elements according to the ease with which they undergo certain chemical reactions
composition stoichiometry
the study of the relationship between the quantities of the elements in a compound
reaction stoichiometry
the study of the relationships between the quantities of elements and compounds involved in chemical reactions
percentage composition
the percentage by mass of each element in a compound
mole ratio
a conversion factor that compares the number of moles of one substance with the number of moles of another substance
covalent network solid
a network of covalently bonded atoms that form a crystal lattice
empirical formula
the symbolic representation of a chemical compound that uses element symbols and subscripts to indicate the smallest whole-number ratio of each kind of atom in a chemical compound
percentage yield
the difference between the actual yield and the theoretical yield of a chemical reaction expressed as a percentage
molar mass
the mass of 1.0 mole of a substance
oxidation number
a numerical value assigned to each element to indicate the number of electrons that might be lost, gained, or shared by an atom of that element when it bonds with an ion or an atom of another element to form a compound
binary molecular compound
a compound whose molecule consists of two atoms that share electrons to form a covalent bond
binary ionic compound
a compound formed from one monatomic cation and one monatomic anion
binary acid
an acid composed of only two elements: hydrogen and one highly electronegative element, such as a halogen
oxyacid
an acid that contains hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element, which is usually a nonmetal
oxyanion
a polyatomic ion that contains oxygen
hydrogen halide
a binary molecular compound composed of hydrogen and a halogen
hydride
a binary molecular compound made up of hydrogen and a main group element
salt
an ionic compound formed when a cation from a base bonds with an anion produced by an acid
catalyst
a substance that alters the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction
oxidizer
any substance that causes another substance to lose electrons
precipitate
a solid product that settles out of an aqueous solution as a result of a reaction between aqueous reactants
theoretical yield
the maximum amount of product that could be produced in a chemical reaction under ideal conditions
actual yield
the measured quantity of a product that is obtained from a chemical reaction
limiting reactant
the reactant that is completely used up in a chemical reaction and causes the reaction to stop
excess reactant
the reactant that is not completely used up in a chemical reaction