30 terms

Adjectives

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el chico alto
la chica alta
los libros pequeños
las plumas rojas
Adjectives that are descriptive usually follow the noun they describe
pocos libros
mucha energía
mucho trabajo
pocas casas
Adjectives of quantity almost always come before the noun. Such adjectives tell how much or how many.
la blanca nieve
the white snow (snow is inherently white)

los altos picos
the tall peaks (peaks are inherently tall)
If the adjective is descriptive, but speaks of a quality that is inherent and usually taken for granted, the adjective comes first
aburrido
meaning with ser: to be boring
meaning with estar: to be bored
atento
meaning with ser: to be polite/kind/helpful
meaning with estar: to be focused/alert/to pay attention
borracho
meaning with ser: to be a drunkard/to be an alcoholic
meaning with estar: to be drunk
bueno
meaning with ser: to be good
meaning with estar: to be well/to taste good/to look attractive
cansado
meaning with ser: to be tiring/to be tiresome
meaning with estar: to be tired
despierto
meaning with ser: to be sharp/to be smart/to be alert
meaning with estar: to be awake
grave
meaning with ser: to be serious/to be severe (situation, error)
meaning with estar: to be seriously ill/to be in critical condition
guapo
meaning with ser: to be handsome/to be pretty
meaning with estar: to look handsome/to look pretty
interesado
meaning with ser: to be selfish
meaning with estar: to be interested
listo
meaning with ser: to be clever/to be smart
meaning with estar: to be ready/to be prepared
malo
meaning with ser: to be bad/to be evil/to be wicked
meaning with estar:to be ill/to be in bad shape
molesto
meaning with ser: to be annoying/to be irritating
meaning with estar: to be annoyed/to be upset
nervioso
meaning with ser: to be easily irritable/to be of nervous character
meaning with estar: to feel nervous/to feel irritated
pesado
meaning with ser: to be heavy/to be tough
meaning with estar: to be tiresome/to be annoying
seguro
meaning with ser: to be safe/to be reliable/to be certain (situation)
meaning with estar: to be sure/to be certain (person)
vivo
meaning with ser: to be sharp/to be lively/to be intensive
meaning with estar: to be alive
Me gusta el vestido nuevo. (I like my new dress)
Me duele el brazo. (My arm hurts.)
possessive adjectives are not used with articles of clothing or body parts. Rather, the definite article is used.
El gato es feliz-Los gatos son felices.
For adjectives that end in z in the singular, change the z to a c before adding the plural ending.
Pablo es cabezón-Paula es cabezona; Mi hermano es trabajador-Mis hermanas son trabajadoras.
Adjectives that end in -or, -ón, or -ín do have feminine forms. Simply add a or -as to the masculine singular form and delete the written accent if necessary.
Está en la parte posterior del edificio.
Adjectives ending in -erior do not have a feminine form.
alto, alta, altos, altas
Adjectives that end in -o have four forms, including adjectives of nationality ending in -o.
español, española, españoles, españolas
Adjectives of nationality ending in a consonant have four forms, in addition to adjectives ending in: or, án, ón, ín;
interesante, interesantes
To make an 'e' adjective plural, add an 's' to the singular ending.; Adjectives that end in 'e' or 'ista' do not change according to gender, though they do change for number.
La moto es azul; Los pájaros son azules.
Most adjectives that end in a consonant do not change according to gender, but do change for number.
Es poco generoso.
Es un poco egoísta.
Use poco when adjective is positive.
Use un poco when adjective is negative.
Me encantan los huevos revueltos.
(I love scrambled eggs.)

Salimos por la puerta abierta.
(We left through the open door.)
Past participles are commonly used as adjectives in Spanish. When this is the case, they must agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify. The following examples show past participles being used as adjectives
Mi novela favorita fue escrita por Gabriel García Márquez.
(My favorite novel was written by Gabriel Garcia Marquez.)

Las puertas están cerradas.
(The doors are closed.)

Esta manzana parece podrida.
(This apple seems rotten.)
Predicative adjectives are adjectives used in conjunction with a linking verb, such as
ser (to be), estar (to be) , or parecer (to seem). Predicative adjectives must also agree with the nouns they modify in gender and number.