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What element makes protein different from carbohydrates and fat?


A complete Protein

contains all 9 essential amino acids

Two acids are joined together by a peptide bond to form a dipeptide. What is the by-product of this process



is a complete source of protein


are the most complete protein from a plant source

Of the 20 amino acids relevant to the human body, how many are considered non-essential?


Providing energy to the body

is NOT a major function of protein in the human body


are proteins that are fundamental to the immune system

Significant chemical digestion of protein begins in the


Benito is a healthy 19-year-old college student who is sedentary. He is 5'11" tall and weighs 175 pounds. How many grams of protein would you recommend he consumes?

64 grams


are classified as a micronutrient

Fat-soluble vitamins need to be consumed on a daily basis


Which two vitamins pose the greatest risk for toxicity?

Vitamins A & D

Vitamins A, D, E & K are best absorbed with foods that are rich in?



is a trace mineral

________ of a adults healthy body weight is fluid.


Water has a high heat capacity. What does this term mean?

Water is resistant to change in.

Water freely moves across cell membranes


Ian is hospitalized for dehydration after experiencing severe vomiting and diarrhea. Which of the following is NOT associated with Ian's dehydrated condition?

The extracellular electrolyte concentration will be very low.

What is the primary reason we sweat?

to regulate body temperature

Most water is lost daily via _______.


The ability of a muscle to contract and relax is dependent on the flow of _______ in and out of the muscle cell.



Is NOT a major mineral.

Diets high in sodium are associated with:

High Blood Pressure

Better suffers from hypertension, and her physician has advised her to reduce her salt intake. Which of the following recommendations would you suggest Bette use to lower her sodium intake?

a. Avoid processed foods such as canned soups and quick cooking items.
b. Choose fresh fruit and veggies
c. DASH Diet

Diets rich in _______ are associated with maintaining healthy blood pressure levels.


The majority of dietary chloride is consumed from ______.

table salt


is a diuretic

After completing a 10K run, Bonita notices her urine is brown and similar to the color of cola. What does this indicate about Bonita's hydration status?

She is suffering from severe dehydration and needs treatment immediately.

carbohydrates contain

carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen

What is the major monosaccharide found in the body?


_______ is a storage form of glucose in animals found in liver and skeletal muscle.


The majority of our body's phosphorus is stored in the:


In the body, the major storage sites for glycogen are the:

muscles & liver

What is the preferred fuels for most body functions?

carbohydrate and fat

Insulin is synthesized and released by the:


Glucose is the preferred source of energy for which of the following?

a. red blood cells
b. gallbladder
c. central nervous system

In the absence of carbohydrate, ____are produced from the incomplete breakdown of the body fat.


Which of the following are substances in plant foods that are not absorbed by the body?

dietary fiber

How many grams of carbohydrate (per day) are recommended to prevent ketosis in healthy individuals? (RDA)

130 grams

Over 16 million Americans have diabetes. Which of the following is the most prevalent form of diabetes?

Type 2

Diabetes is a condition in which the body does NOT regulate ________ properly.


Lactose intolerance is due to a/an

deficiency of lactase

Yogurt is tolerated better than milk by many lactase-deficient people because:

bacteria in yogurt help digest the lactose.

The rate of overweight status in school-age children (6-19) has ______ since the 70's.



are NOT major classes of dietary lipids.

A triglyceride includes:

3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol

A fatty acid that contains a chain of 10 carbons and one double bond is termed a:

monounsaturated, medium chain fatty acid.


a fatty acid that is generally solid at room temperature

the process of adding hydrogen too an unsaturated fatty acid and creating a more solid fat is called


diets high in trans-fatty acids are associated with:

increased blood cholesterol levels

________ is/are the key structural component of a cell's membrane


which of the following food items would contain the highest amount of saturated fat?


fat provides an immediate source of energy during exercise.


The vast majority of fat digestion and absorption occurs in the

small intestine

to facilitate the digestion of dietary fats, the gallbladder stores and releases a substance known as:


Where in the body are the majority of triglycerides stored for future energy needs?

adipose tissue

How many calories are potentially provided by 25 grams of fat?


The acceptable macronutrient distribution range for fat is _______ of total energy intake.


To lower cardiovascular risk it is recommended that we consume less than ______ of our total daily caloric intake from saturated fat.


The following is TRUE regarding the science of nutrition

a. as compared to many other scientific disciplines, nutrition is a young science
b. discoveries by the first nutritional scientist established the connection between deficiencies and illnesses.
c. in developed countries current research in nutrition focuses on the relationship between diet and chronic disease

what is the primary source of fuel for the brain?


what element makes protein different form carbohydrates and fat?


________ are examples of inorganic nutrients.


Jane consumed a breakfast that contained 85g of carbohydrates, 20 grams of protein, and 18 grams of fat. How many kilocalories did Jane eat at breakfast?

85*4 = 340
20*4 = 80
18*9 = 162

Wheat and Lentils

are examples of carbohydrate rich foods

the building blocks of proteins are called

amino acids

Vitamins are classified into two groups

fat soluble; water soluble

the Dietary reference intake (DRI's) were established to re-focus nutrient recommendations toward preventing

chronic diseases

_______ are strongly accepted principles supported by many hypotheses that have been collectively confirmed through repeated research.


the four characteristics of a healthful diet are adequacy, balance, moderation, and _______.


the information provided on a food label that identifies how much a serving of food contributes to your intake of nutrients based on 2,000 calories a day is called the:

% daily value

the nutrition facts panel on a box of crackers indicates that one serving provides 140 calories, with 55 calories coming from fat, what is the % of fat coming from calories?


55/140 = .39

the dietary guidelines for Americans recommends a minimum of:

30 minutes of moderate activity most or all days of the week

Diets high in sugar are directly associated with:

tooth decay

the fruits section of MyPyramid emphasizes: "Focus on fruits" and encourages the consumption of all of the following EXCEPT

fruit juices

______ is the slogan used by my-pyramid to encourage gradual improvements in diet and lifestyle.

steps to a healthier you

according to my-pyramid, which of the following foods would count toward an individuals discretionary calorie intake?

table sugar

the exchange system was originally designed for individuals with

diabetes mellitus

these are many types of diet plans available today. The overall best diet plan is one that

fits the lifestyle and needs of the individual

appetite is triggered by

the culture in which one is raised
the smell, taste, and texture of food
the time of day

the smallest units of matter that normally cannot be broken down are


cell membranes are primarily composed of


what is the term that describes the process in which foods are broken down into their component molecules?


bob eats is breakfast. His GI tract will now begin the process of digestion and absorbing the nutrients from this meal. What is the order in which each of the organs of the GI tract will work to achieve this process?

mouth; esophagus; stomach; small intestine; large intestine

which best explains why carbohydrate digestion ceases when food reaches the stomach?

salivary enzymes cannot function in the acid environment of the stomach.

a primary function of the mucus in the stomach is to

protect stomach cells from autodigestion

which of the following organs is responsible for the manufacturing and secretion of many digestive enzymes and bicarbonate?


bicarbonate is release into the duodenum during the process of digestion. Why?

to neutralize the acidic chyme

eating two large meals a day would be recommended for the treatment of GERD


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