A boiling reaction against the growing liberalism in religion set in about 1800. A fresh wave of roaring revivals, beginning on the southern frontier but soon rolling even into the cities of the Northeast, sent the ______ surging across the land. It was one of the most momentous episodes in the history of American religion. It left in its wake countless converted souls, many shattered and reorganized churches, and numerous new sects. It also encouraged an effervescent evangelicalism that bubbled up into innumerable areas of American life - including prison reform, the temperance clause, the women's movement, and the crusade to abolish slavery. Methodists and Baptists reaped the most abundant harvest of souls from the fields of fertilized by revivalism. Both sects stressed personal conversion (contrary to predestination), a relatively democratic control of church affairs, and a rousing emotionalism. Peter Cartwright was the best known of the Methodist "circuit riders," or traveling frontier preachers. Revivals also furthered the fragmentation of religious faiths. Millerites, or Adventists, rose from the superheated soil of the Burned-Over District (NY) in the 1830s. Named after the eloquent and commanding William Miller, they interpreted the Bible to mean that Christ would return on October 22, 1844. The failure of Jesus to descend on schedule dampened but did not destroy the movement. The Second Great Awakening tended to widen the lines between classes and regions. The more prosperous and conservative denominations in the East were little touched by revivalism, and Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Unitarians continued to rise mostly from wealthier, better-educated levels of society. Methodists, Baptists, and the members of other emerging sects spawned by the swelling evangelistic fervor tended to come from less prosperous, less "learned" communities in the rural South and West. Religious diversity further reflected social cleavages when the churches faced up to the slavery issue. By 1844-1845 both the southern Baptists and the souther Methodists had split with their northern brethren over slavery. The secession of the southern churches foreshadowed the secession of the southern states. First the churches split, then the political parties split, and then the Union split. Tax-supported primary schools were scarce in the early years of the Republic. They had an odor of pauperism about them, since they existed chiefly to educate the children of the poor. Advocates for "free" education met stiff opposition. Well-to-do, conservative Americans gradually saw the light. If they did not pay to educate other peoples "brats," the "brats" might grow up into a dangerous, ignorant rabble - armed with the vote. Taxation for education was an insurance premium that the wealthy paid for stability and democracy. Tax-supported public education, though miserably lagging in the slavery-cursed South, triumphed between 1825 and 1850. Hard-toiling laborers wielded increased influence and demanded instruction for their children. Early free schools stayed open only a few months of the year. Schoolteachers, most of them men in this era, were too often ill-trained, ill-tempered, and ill-paid. They usually only taught the "three R's" - "readin', 'ritin', and 'rithmetic." Schoolteachers in early free schools usually only taught reading, writing, and arithmetic. Reform was urgently needed. Into the breach stepped ____, a brilliant and idealistic graduate of Brown University. As secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he campaigned effectively for more and better schoolhouses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum. His influence radiated out to other states, and impressive movements were chalked up. Yet education remained an expensive luxury for many communities. As late as 1860, the nation counted only about 100 public secondary schools - and nearly a million white adult illiterates. Black slaves in the South were legally forbidden to receive instruction in reading or writing, and even free blacks, in the North as well as the South, were usually excluded from schools.