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Rock Cycle Review (adapted from CL)
Terms in this set (24)
Molten (melted) rock found under the surface of the Earth; it is called lava when it is found at or near the surface
Type of rock formed from molten rock (magma or lava) through the process of cooling and crystallization (solidification/hardening) below or on Earth's surface; classified as intrusive or extrusive.
Loose materials like rock fragments, mineral grains, and remains of plants and animals. Rock and mineral fragments are formed through weathering (breaking into pieces) and erosion (transportation by water or wind).
Type of rock formed under water from rock fragments, chemicals dissolved in water, or organic matter; it is formed through lithification (burial, compaction, and cementation) of sediments; classified as clastic or non-clastic.
Type of rock formed when any existing rock is changed by the effects of heat and/or pressure, through regional or contact/local metamorphism; classified as foliated or non-foliated.
Process that breaks rocks into smaller pieces.
The process that moves (transports) sediments to a new location; it may be driven by water or wind.
The process of sediments settling in a new location, such as when sediments fall to the bottom of a lake or ocean.
The process of covering an old layer of sediments under a new layer of deposited sediments; the weight of new layer of sediments may cause compaction of the old layer of sediments
The process of gluing (cementing) compacted sediments together by minerals
The process of squeezing the water and air out of a layer of sediments due to the weight of new layers of sediments deposited on top of it
The process of compacting and cementing sediments transforming them into a sedimentary rock
The process of applying a force on a surface, such as when the weight of upper layers of rock pushes down on lower layers.
Temperature and pressure ________ with depth in the Earth.
The process of changing the state of matter from solid to liquid. Any type of rock may melt if subjected to extreme heat.
What processes make metamorphic rocks?
Heat and pressure
What process(es) make(s) sedimentary rocks?
Lithification (compaction, and cementation) of sediments
What processes make igneous rocks?
Cooling and crystallization (solidification/hardening) of magma or lava
What processes make most sediments (pieces of rocks and minerals)?
Weathering and erosion of any existing rock
What process makes magma?
Melting of any existing rock
What is the name of a diagram that describes how one type of rock can be transformed (changed) to form another rock over time?
What processes must occur for an igneous rock to change into a sedimentary rock?
First, weathering and erosion form sediments from the igneous rock and deposit them in a body of water. Then, the sediments are compacted and cemented to form a sedimentary rock.
What processes must occur for a metamorphic rock to change into an igneous rock?
First, extreme heat must melt the metamorphic rock and turns it into magma. Then, the magma (or lava) is cooled and crystallized to form an igneous rock.
What is the name of the scientist who originated the concept of the Rock Cycle?
James Hutton considered the founder of modern geology (per AMNH.com) He was a "Scottish geologist, chemist, naturalist, and originator of one of the fundamental principles of geology—uniformitarianism, which explains the features of the Earth's crust by means of natural processes over geologic time" (per Britannica.com)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Sedimentary Rocks Review (adapted from CL)
Metamorphic Rocks Review (adapted from CL)
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