AP Human Geography Unit 6: Agriculture

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Terms in this set (...)

Agriculture
Farming
Neolithic Revolution
Human shift from hunting/gathering to farming
Second Agriculture Revolution
Mechanization/industrial revolution in farming
Green Revolution
Current agriculture revolution; high tech
Domestication
Process of taming wild plants or animals
Fertile Crescent
Region in SW Asia; hearth agriculture
Columbian Exchange
Transfer of plants, animals, diseases, people, practices between Europe & the Americas
Terracing
Cutting steps into hillside to create farmland
Irrigation
Bringing water to crops by artificial means
Deforestation
Cutting down trees to use land in other ways
Draining wetlands
Clearing natural swamp areas to create fields
Pesticide
Substance used to destroy insects
Herbicide
Chemical weedkiller
Fertilizer
Substance added to soil to increase fertility
Shifting agriculture
Farming a plot for awhile, then leaving it unharmed for awhile in order to replenish itself Domesticated farm animals
Mediterranean agriculture
EX.: Farming olives, figs, citrus fruits, grapes
Pastoral nomadism
Subsistence ag; based on herding animals
Subsistence cultivation /agriculture
Farming just to feed yourself/your family
Commercial agriculture
Farming a surplus for profit
Intensive agriculture
Farming that uses a lots of capital on little land
Extensive agriculture
Farming that uses few resources & more land
Market gathering
Sales of plants to nearby consumers
Ranching
Commercial herding of animals
Livestock
Animals raised on farms for profit
Agribusiness
A huge farming corporation (ex. Monsanto)
Commodity chain
Steps involved in creating & selling a product
Von Thunen Model
Theory: Pattern of agriculture land use
Dairy farming
EX. Milk, cheese, yogurt, sour cream
Horticulture
The art & science of growing plants
Crops
Domesticated (not wild) plants grown for food
Desertification
When fertile land becomes arid over time
Biotechnology
High-tech process of modify living organisms for human benefit
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
Plants/animals with DNA altered by humans
Organic farming
Farming that does not use chemicals or GMOs
Aquaculture
Farming of marine life
Sustainable agriculture
Farm practices that protect the environment
Fair Table
Trade focused on paying producers in developing countries more share of profit
Local-food movement
Commitment to eating food produced nearby
Specialty crops
EX. Fruits, nuts, flowers, vegetables
Economics of scale
When producing more ends up costing less
Food desert
Urban area with no grocery store nearby