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Physics Quiz 1 - Galileo's Battle for the Heavens
Terms in this set (61)
What did each sunrise prove to people in Galileo's time?
The rise of the sun proved to the people that earth was static and the sun orbited the earth.
How did the church view astronomy in Galileo's time? For what subjects was astronomy considered pre-requisite?
The Church believed that the study of astronomy was divine
In what practical ways did the church use astronomy?
The church used astronomy to prove the existence of God.
By studying the stars, the worshipers became closer to him. The universe was eternal and so was God.
Also, the sky was both a calendar and a clock that allowed for worshipers to organize their worship schedules through the seasons.
What subject did Galileo study first at the university?
Medicine / Anatomy
Who had to approve the anatomy diagrams in Galileo's medical texts?
The Jesuits had to approve the anatomy diagrams in Galileo's medical texts.
What did Galileo think about math?
Math was essential for worshiping God. Math was the rule-book that provided for the universe to function. Without mathematics, it would be impossible to understand the universe.
What was unique about a job in Padua? How long a trip is it from Padua to Venice?
Padua was partially absent from the strict Vatican doctrine. This would allow for professors to teach and perform research that the church would not usually allow. The distance from Padua to Venice was about 40 miles. Venice was just a ferry ride from Padua.
How many illegitimate children did Galileo have? What was the name of the eldest?
Galileo had 3 illegitimate children. His eldest daughter's name was Virginia.
How did Galileo improve the telescope? How was the magnifying effect produced? What skill did he have to acquire?
Galileo improved the telescope by increasing the magnification of the lenses. The magnifying effect was produced by having a weak lens on one end of a tube followed by a powerful lens on the other side. Galileo had to teach himself how to grind the lenses himself to increase the magnification.
What did Galileo try to do first with his telescope? Why would the navy be interested in his telescope?
Galileo tried to sell his telescope.
How much sooner could ships be identified with the telescope?
Who bought the first telescopes?
The naval arsenal.
What could Galileo see about the surface of the moon that was not expected?
Galileo saw ridges and craters on the moon.
What did Galileo discover about Jupiter? What did he conclude about what he saw?
There were moons that revolved around Jupiter just like Earth. He concluded Earth was not the center of the solar system. If so the moons would all be revolving around Earth also.
Why were the orbiting moons of Jupiter an important discovery?
Crucial determination of the sun being the center of the solar system and not the Earth.
What did Galileo do about his discovery?
Galileo published his findings in a book.
How long did it take for the Starry Messenger to be published?
It took about two months for the Starry Messenger to be published.
What did Copernicus notice about the complexity of planetary motion?
Copernicus noticed that the sun was not at the center of the Universe.
What two separate motions did Copernicus imagine for the earth?
Copernicus imagined that the earth revolved around the sun and had a second revolution on an orbital axis (having daily cycles).
What did most people think of Copernicus' ideas? What did the solid earth have to do with this? What observational evidence of these ideas could be seen?
Most people disregarded Copernicus's ideas, because if the earth was to be moving then why would the individuals and beings on it not fly away?
What family ruled Florence (Tuscany)?
The De Medici family ruled Florence.
What were Galileo's titles in Florence?
Galileo's titles were mathematician and philosopher.
Why was Florence a more dangerous place for Galileo's radical beliefs than Venice?
Florence had direct ties to the Pope, the Church, and the De Medici Family.
In what sort of institution did Galileo leave his two daughters?
Galileo left his two daughters in a convent.
How did Virginia interact with Galileo? What became of her letters?
Virginia interacted with Galileo through letters. All of her letters survive to this day.
How was Galileo able to use Venus to prove that Copernicus was right?
Galileo proved that Venus has crescent cycles similar to the moon.
What happened to the protection and support of the de Medici family?
After some time the protection of the de Medici family disappeared and dissolved.
What was Galileo's explanation of apparent differences between scripture and science?
Did he say scripture had erred?
Scripture tells you how to go to heaven, but not how the heavens go.
What justification did the inquisition offer for the use of pain and torture?
It is better to suffer on the rack then to suffer an eternity in hell.
Who was the hammer of heretics that had Bruno executed?
How are good philosophers like eagles?
Philosophers are like eagles, they fly one and against the pack
How did Galileo overestimate his powers of persuasion? What did he try to convince theologians about their role in astronomy?
Galileo believed that people would be convinced by seeing.
Theologians were more interested in being in-charge.
Why was Galileo excited about having a chance to make his case before Cardianal Belarmine? What happened to Belarmine's interest in science? Why actually happened at the meeting with Belarmine?
Galileo was excited to prove to the Cardinal that he was right, and his observations would justify his opinions.
The Cardinal's interest in science declined due to the fact that he realized that the scientific observations interfered with the church ideology.
The church hiearchy met and decided that Copernicus's ideas were herecy.
Cardinal Belarmine told Galileo that he had to stop.
What name did Galileo's daughter choose for herself when she took her vows. What might have been her reason?
Maria Celeste. This is probably due to the fact that her father studied the stars.
What did Galileo hope to do with Copernican theories for the church? Why did it become a confrontation?
Galileo hoped to prove that the Copernican theories were correct based upon physical evidence. Anyone who believed in the Copernican theories could be considered a heretic also.
Why did Galileo have interest in tides? How did that help him prove that the earth moved?
Galileo was interested in the tides because of the Venice. Observing the tides didn't really help him prove that the earth moved, because there was not enough evidence to account for the effect of gravity at the time.
Why did Galileo not like the notion that the moon influenced the tides?
The belief that the moon influenced the tides, he considered it to be a form of astrology. He didn't want to be concerned with astrology.
What experiment did Galileo consider with a horse and ball? How was this connected to the moving earth? Why is this a principle of relativity?
The horse and ball experiment helped Galileo observe motion. Motion and acceleration are important for the fundamental laws that define the existence of earth. The theory of relativity defines the existence of gravity. Due to gravity objects accelerate.
What were the living conditions of Maria Celeste (Virginia) like? How did she feel about her father?
Maria Celeste had poor living conditions in her convent. Virginia loved her father.
What did Galileo discover about the sun? How did the sunspots change over time?
Galileo discovered that the sun had sunspots. These sunspots changed randomly over time.
Shiner and Galileo had different ideas about sunspots. What were the two points of view? How did Shiner's point of view preserve church dogma?
Shiner believed that the sunspots were satellites that orbited around the sun. Galileo believed that these sunspots were actually on the sun's surface. The church believed that the sun was pure, Galileo's believe that the sun had impurities went against the Church's dogma.
What did the irregular shape of sunspots prove about the satellite theory of sunspots?
The irregular shape proved that the sunspots were not satellites. If they were then the shape would be constant. Therefore the satellite theory was incorrect.
What happened to Barberini's (Urban VIII) coat of arms? Why did horseflies become bees?
Pope Barberini's coat of arms changed from horseflies to honey bees. Horseflies are considered lowly creatures. So they were changed to bees. These signified how busy a worker Barberini was.
What did Marie Celeste hope Urban VIII would change about Galileo's circumstance?
Marie Celeste hoped that Urban VIII would listen to Galileo's theories since they are such close friends.
What did Galileo and Urban VIII do together? What came from that conversation? Under what circumstances could the ideas of Copernicus be discussed?
Galileo and Urban met together in the Pope's garden to discuss the actuality of Copernicus's ideas. The Pope and Galileo came to the agreement that if Galileo was to discuss in a book the hypothetical existence of Copernicus's ideas then a book could be published.
Why was Galileo's greatest work published in Italian rather than Latin?
Galileo wanted to make his text readable by anyone in Italy, so he wrote in the Italian vernacular.
Who were the roles of the three characters? What position did Simplicio advocate? What role did Virginia have in the book?
The three characters discussed the existence of the two main ideologies of the time. One being the ideology that Copernicus's theories are correct, the other being that the Church's ideas were correct. The latter was taken up by Simplicio. The host prompts the two guests to voice their opinions about the subject.
What catastrophe suddenly separated Rome from Florence?
The plague separated Rome from Florence.
What did Maria Celeste's convent do to fight the plague?
Maria Celeste's convent prayed for the town of Florence. Maria Celeste herself prepared a concoction for her father to take that she believed would spare her from the plague.
Why did the pope feel insulted by Galileo's dialogue? Why did he feel that he was made a fool by the publication?
The pope believed that Galileo's dialogue made him look like a fool and made fun of by Galileo. The pope felt that Galileo took advantage of the pope.
What two questions of fact were asked in Galileo's trial?
1) Did the cardinal forbid Galileo to advocate Copernicus?
2) Did Galileo violate the Cardinal's injunction by writing the dialogue?
What options did Galileo have at the time of his sentencing? What choice did he make?
Galileo either could listen to the Church and stop believing in the Copernican theories. Or suffer torture. Galileo decided to prevent injury and listen to the Church.
How long was Galileo's dialogue prohibited by the church?
Galileo's dialogue was prohibited for about 200 years.
Why could Urban VIII not defend Galileo at the time of his sentencing?
Urban was too busy fighting the 30 years war and the Protestant Reformation. To side with Galileo at the time would have been detrimental.
How did Galileo's daughter help with his sentence?
Virginia performed Galileo's weekly prayers.
What was the cause of her death? How old was she?
Virginia died due to fever and dysentery. She was 33 years old.
How many of Galileo's letters to his daughter exist today? How does this compare to the letters of hers that we have. What most likely happened to his letters to her?
None of Galileo's letters to her daughter exist today. All of Virginia's letters exist. It is most likely that Galileo's letters were destroyed after Virginia died.
When did he publish his studies of motion that he conducted in 1604?
Discourse on the Two New Sciences was published in 1638.
Why were balls rolling down gentile slope helpful?
Balls rolling down a gradual slope allowed for the ability to quantitatively measure the movement of the balls over a period of time. This is in contrast to a ball dropped straight down which would have been extremely difficult to measure for the time period.
What is the odd numbers rule? How is this related to "as the time squared?
The odd number rule dictates that per a unit of time an object will travel a certain distance.
What was the book that won the war in the battle for the heavens? When did the church overturn its condemnation of Galileo? What did the pope say about faith and reason?
The Dialogue of the Two Chief Systems of the World was the book that won the Battle of the Heavens. The Church overturned its condemnation of Galileo 200 years after they outlawed the book.
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