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59 terms

Equine Medicine

Florida Institute of Animal Arts access
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stallion
mature male horse
mare
mature female horse
filly
immature female horse
foal
horse under the age of 1
colt
immature male horse
gelding
castrated male horse
mule
offspring of a male donkey, female horse
hinny
offspring of a male horse, female donkey
donkey
like a small horse with long ears (males; jack, females; jenny -- aka ass or burro)
ungulate
hoofed animals (hooflike)
gaits (3 types of)
walk, trot, gallop (canter, stepping pace, running walk, fox trot, amble, rack & pace)
cannon bone
weight bearing shin bone (3rd metacarpal (metatarsal) of the horse)
splint bones
two bones on either side of the cannon bone (shin bone)
sesamoid bones
two bones found at the back of the fetlock (joints in both hindlimbs and forelimbs)
pastern bones
part of the horse between the fetlock joint and the hoof (consists of two bones, the uppermost is proximal phalanx and the lower is middle phalanx)
pedal bone
bottomost bone in the equine leg and is encased by the hoof capsule (commonly known as the coffin bone)
lateral neck muscles (gluteal muscles)
injection sites
calcium and phosphorus
essential minerals
Vit A, B, E (Vit D is synthesized)
vitamins to be provided in feed
can't vomit, no gallbladder (to store bile), large cecum
digestive system (differences)
stomach
stores, mixes, digests and propels feed into the small intestine
small intestines
is where most feed nutrients are digested and absorbed (aka uppergut)
large intestine (includes)
cecum and colon (aka hindgut)
cecum
undigested nutrients are fermented (similar to that which occurs in the forestomach of ruminants)
colon
further digestion and absorption (in hindgut)
10-24 months
horse sexual maturity
11 months
horse gestation
foal heat
mare comes in heat about a week after foaling
premarin
pregnant mares urine (far a drug made of conjugated estrogen)
oribatid mite
intermediate tapeworm host (small mites found in virtually all soils all over the world.)
ileocecal junction (opening between the ileum, or small intestine, the colon and the cecum)
where Anoplocephala perfoliata (equine tapeworm) tend to congregate
tapeworm
eggs pass thru feces, ate by oribatid mite, transmitted by ingestion of the oribatid mite, treated with equimax
pinworms
female worms crawl out of the horse's rectum, deposit eggs on the perianal region, and crawl back into the rectum, transmitted by ingestion of eggs, treated with strongid
Roundworm
eggs pass thru feces, transmitted by the ingestion of eggs, treated with strongid (& regular internal parasite control program)(eggs are viable for up to 10yrs)(aka ascarid)
Strongyles
eggs pass thru feces, develop into larvae in the feces (lives up to 3 months), transmitted by ingestion of the larvae (which may attach to grass blades), treated with strongid (& regular internal parasite control program)(aka bloodworm)
anthelmintic
dewormer (purging wormer; strongid, others; ivermectin or moxidectin)
bot fly
fly attaches eggs to hair follicles, larvae are ingested, treated with invermectin (& regular internal parasite control program)
large strongyles (s vulgaris)
most important internal parasite
sucking lice
treated with systematic insecticides or avermectins (lice)
biting lice
treated with dipping (or spraying) insecticides
sarcoptes mange
treated with avermectins (mites)
Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis (HYPP)
an inherited disease of the muscle which is caused by a genetic defect (common in quarter horses)
Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage (EIPH)
bleeding from blood vessels within the lung (pulmonary) (bleeding from the nose; epistaxis) (aka bleeders)
Equine infectious anemia (EIA) (aka swamp fever)
infectious viral disease that attacks the horse's immune system (closely related to HIV)
Equine Encephalitis virus (EEE, WEE; eastern,western)(aka sleeping sickness)
virus spread to horses and humans by infected mosquitoes, vaccine available for horses)(CNS dysfunction and moderate to high mortality)
Equine Herpes Virus (aka equine abortion virus)
Equine rhinopneumonitis virus (two most common strains are EHV-1, which causes abortion, respiratory disease and neurologic disease; and EHV-4, which usually causes respiratory disease only but can occasionally cause abortion, vaccine available)
equine vaccines
influenza, tetanus, encephalitis (EEE,WEE), herpes (EHV) (also rabies, botulism, Equine viral arteritis (EVA), strangles, west nile)
strangles
an acute bacterial (streptocucus Equi) disease of horses characterized by inflammation of the mucous membranes, treated with penicillin(aka distemper/shipping fever)
colic
not a disease, rather a group of symptoms in response to abdominal pain
leptospirosis
bacterial (leptospira) infection of the kidneys
laminitis (aka founder)
painful condition of the hooved foot (inflammation of the lamina)
Enterotoxemia
result of toxins produced by spore-forming bacteria (Clostridium perfringens; types B and C causes severe enteritis, dysentery, toxemia)(aka overeating disease)
Potomac horse fever (PHF)
transmitted by insects, causative agent Ehrlichia risticii, treated with oxytetracycline and IV fluids (causes acute diarrhea) (aka Equine ehrlichial colitis, Equine monocytic ehrlichiosis, Ditch fever, Shasta River crud)(mortality 30%)
Tetanus
toxemia caused by a specific neurotoxin produced a bacteria (Clostridium tetani) in necrotic tissue, treated with antitoxin (aka lockjaw)
Anthrax
septicemia (blood poisoning) caused by the sporeforming bacterium (Bacillus anthracis), vaccine available, treatment usually not possible due to acute nature but is sensitive to pencillin, streptomycin & tetracyclines)
botulism
intoxication with a neurotoxin produced by sporeforming, anaerobic bacterium (Clostridium botulinum) that inhabits soils and marine and freshwater sediments), treated with antitoxin
99.1F-100.8F, 32-44bpm, 8-6bpm
horse TPR
<102.7, 128bpm, 14-15bpm
foal TPR
Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM)
a common neurologic disease caused by the ingestion of S neurona sporocysts (protozoa) in contaminated feed or water