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Science
Physics
Physical Science Midterm Study
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Gravity
Terms in this set (81)
vector quantities
include direction
Velocity
Speed in a given direction
acceleration
Rate of change of velocity
vector quantities
include direction
Inertia
The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
Weight
A measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object.
Mass
A measure of the amount of matter in an object
Newton's first law
an object in motion tends to stay in motion and an object in rest tends to stay at rest until acted upon by an outside force
If you are given the weight of an object (in Newtons) on earth how do you find its mass?
divide by gravity (9.81)
What is a force
a push or a pull measured in Newtons
Net force
The sum of all forces acting on an object
Balanced force
Equal forces acting on an object in opposite directions
Newton's 2nd Law
Force (N) = mass (kg) x acceleration (m/s^2)
Mass and acceleration relationship When force does not change
Inverse relationship
If you are given the mass of an object (kg) how do you find its weight (Newtons)
Multiply by 9.81
Free fall
the motion of a falling object when the only force acting on it is gravity
What is the acceleration of free fall on earth?
9.81 m/s^2
What force acts on you in free fall
gravity
Is there a net force in free fall
Yes until terminal velocity is reached
Terminal velocity
the greatest velocity a falling object reaches, the point at which air resistance equals gravity
What forces act on you at terminal velocity
Air resistance + gravity with a net force of zero
What factors does terminal velocity depend on
Surface area, velocity
acceleration at terminal velocity
0 m/s^2
Net force at terminal velocity
0 N
Newton' third law
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
What happens in the third law to acceleration if one mass is small and the other is large
acceleration of small object is great and large object has small acceleration
law of universal gravitation
G
(m1
m2)/(d^2)
what does law of universal gravitation tell us in words
Every object in the universe attracts every other object
what happens to your mass if you go to Jupiter?
Mass does not change only weight
What happens to your weight when you go to Jupiter?
it changes as gravity is no longer 9.81 m/s^2
What is G in the universal gravitation formula
Gravitational constant (6.67*10^-11 (this is on your answer sheet))
What are only two important factors that determine force due to gravity?
Mass and distance
in gravitation which is more important mass or distance and why
distance because it's squared!
what is momentum
the mass of an object times its velocity
Momentum formula
p=mv
Conservation of momentum
the total momentum of a system of objects does not change, as long as no outside forces are acting on that system
Elastic collision
when 2 objects collide and bounce off of each other
Inelastic collision
When objects collide and stick together
Simple machines
Device that makes work easier
Mechanical advantage
the number of times a machine increases a force exerted on it
Block and tackle system
an arrangement of fixed and movable pulleys connected by strings, ropes, or cables that provide a mechanical advantage for exerting a force
Unit for mass
kg (kilogram)
Unit for force
N (newtons)
Unit for distance
m (meters)
unit for time
(s) seconds
unit for momentum
kg x m/s
Unit for work
(J) Joules
Unit for power
(W) watts
Unit for energy
(J) Joules
Work formula
work (Joules)= force (Newtons) x distance (meters)
How do you find efficiency
Output of work divided by input
How do you find power
work (joules) divided by time (seconds)
Law of conservation of energy
Energy is not created or destroyed, only changed
If a Mr. Bledsoe has 100 Joules of Potential Energy before he jumps off a desk how much kinetic energy does he have as he lands?
100 Joules of Kinetic Energy
Potential energy
The energy stored in an object due to its position
Kinetic Energy
Energy in motion
Potential energy formula
PE (J) = m (kg)
g (gravity)
height (m)
Kinetic energy formula
KE = 1/2
m
v ^2
In KE what's more important mass (m) or velocity (v) and why?
Velocity because it's squared
Why does a bouncing ball never return to its original height
Transfers energy due to friction, heat
Why is the first hill of the roller coaster always the highest
Because it will have the most potential energy
Control variable
...
Control variable
A factor that is held constant to test the relative impact of an independent variable
Scientific method steps
OHEDC
Observations, Hypothesis, Experiment, Data Collection, Conclusion, If necessary start again
Hypothesis
An educated guess
Speed
Distance/time
Slope of a position vs time graph
Speed=position/time
Slope of a speed vs time graph
Acceleration= speed/time
Scalar
A quantity that only has magnitude
Magnitude
Size in numbers
What did Galileo do
Experiments
Theory
A result of a large body of information
Distance/time
Speed
Is speed scalar and/or vector
Scalar
Tangential velocity
the linear speed of something moving along a circular path
Tangential direction
The direction an object will move when released from a circular path
Viscous
(adj.) not free flowing, syrupy (The viscous syrup took three minutes to pour out of the bottle.)
Dynamic equilibrium
Net force of zero while moving
Why do things stop on earth
Friction forces
Types of friction
1. Static
2. Dynamic
3. Fluid
Rolling
What happens when you release a yoyo spinning around you
Goes in a tangential direction
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